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ECO101H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Allocative Efficiency, Coase Theorem, Cost


Department
Economics
Course Code
ECO101H1
Professor
James Pesando
Study Guide
Final

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Topic 14 Externalities
(Jan 17th-19th)
Outline:
1 Overview
2. Pollution: Negative Production Externality
2.1 examples
2.2. Social versus Private cost
2.3 Inefficiency of Market Outcome
2.4 Emissions charge (tax) to achieve efficiency
4. Alcohol: Negative Consumption Externality
5. Other externalities
6. The Coase Theorem
Motivational Example: Lumber Industry Perfect Competition
Observations:
1. The Lumber Industry is in perfect competition;
2. Lumber mills dump toxic waste into the nearby lake, therefore decreasing the recreational value of the
lake;
3. Lumber mills are not required to compensate the users of the lake for the decline of the recreational
quality of the lake.
Questions:
1. In this industry, will the price paid by consumers: too high; too low?
2. Is the market going to the set the price at the correct level?
3. Will the market for lumber produce an allocatively efficient level of output?
There are third party effects.
Externality: Transaction between buyer and seller affects third party
Production externality: process of producing goods/services affects third party, both for the better/worse)
e.g. Pollution;
Consumption externality: consuming of the goods/services affect third party, both for better/worse
e.g. Alcohol
Pollution: Negative Production Externality
Market for Aluminum
QAE QC Quantity
Price
$25
$30
DD
(Private Value = Social Value)
SS - Private Cost
SS Social Cost
1. Pre-externality: Price($25) and Quantity (QC)
result in allocative efficiency because the value to
buyers of the last unit sold equals to the cost to
producers;
2. Assume health economics determine that for
each ton of Aluminum produced, the cost to society
(smoke) is $10/ton;
3. With externality: the market outcome is no longer
in allocative efficiency.
$10
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