[EEB202H1] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (27 pages long)

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Published on 29 Nov 2016
School
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EEB202H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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10/2/2016 Lec1
file:///Users/user/Desktop/eeb202/Lec1.html 1/4
Lecture 1
Whyshouldwecareaboutplantsex?
Plantbreeding,cropproductionandworldfood
BiotechnologyandGMO’s
Assessingthecostsandbenefits
Escapeofgenesandgeneticpollution
Plantinvasionbiology
Conservationbiology
Some Basic Concepts in Evolution & Genetics
Population is the unit to study evolution - Individuals don’t evolve
fundamental level of biological organization = molecules -> -> more complex levels (ecosystems)
Charles Darwin
EN naturalist who established the theory of evolution
Co-discover with A.R. Wallace of the mechanism of evolution
natural selection
Theory of evolution
central unifying concept of biology
affects many areas of knowledge
e.g. evolutionary medicine (aging, diseases)
one of the most influential concepts of western thoughts
Theodosius Dobzhansky
founder of modern evolutionary synthesis
fruit fly geneticist
“Nothing in bio makes sense except in the light of evolution"
evolution can explain structure, behaviour
genetics is important in understanding evolution
The Origin of Species - 2 basic ideas:
1. All organisms have descended with modification from common ancestors
there’s a tree of life and at the top of it = today -> can figure out our common ancestors by
tracing down this tree
all life is united through this tree of life
all organisms have the exact same DNA
2. major agent of modification is natural selection operating on variation among individuals
natural selection = mechanism responsible for evolution
Darwin’s theory is based on 3 observable facts
1. Variation- variation among individuals in a population
we carry genes that make us different from one another
2. Heredity- progeny(offsprings) resemble their parents more than unrelated individuals
because they inherited the genes from their parents
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3. Selection- some forms are more successful at surviving and breeding than others in a given
environment
evolution will occur as long as there’re these 3 things
it’s a continuous process that never stop (no purpose)
James D. Watson
religion and evolutionary biology don’t have to clash
Basic concepts of genetics
organisms have many thousands of genes -> which make up the genome(all of the genes in you)
we have around 20,000 genes
each gene is represented by 2 alleles(gene copies) inherited from the maternal & paternal parent
if they’re identical, the gene is homozygous(e.g. AA)
if they’re different, it’s heterozygous(e.g. Aa)
highly homozygous -> direct relation with decreased longevity, fitness, susceptivity to
diseases
Gene
a unit of hereditary info located on the chromosomes consisting of DNA
a sequence of DNA that’s essential for a specific biological function
genes make proteins(essentially building blocks of life)
some genes have physiological functions
e.g. breathe when low on oxygen level
impaired genes contribute to human disorders
Mutation = ultimate source of all genetic variability (where variability comes from)
Unlike evolution/natural selection which is deterministic (we can predict it), it’s completely
random
an irreversible change in DNA
a copying error
occurs at a very low but variable rate
Types: gene, chromosomal
Effects: neutral(no effect on fitness of individual), deleterious(impair fitness but don’t kill us) or
lethal(most mutations are these 2), beneficial
fitness - the number of offsprings you pass on
Eye colour in fruit flies
White: recessive gene for albinism
Flower colour
what is the fitness effect?
how likely is the mutation going to spread?
Evolution is about the number of genes that get passed on to the next generation!
Genotype
genetic constitution of an organism
e.g. (Aa), (AA), (aa)
Phenotype
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