EEB202H1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 65 pages long!)

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Published on 29 Mar 2018
School
UTSG
Department
Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Course
EEB202H1
Professor
UTSG
EEB202H1
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION
1. Molecules
2. Cells
3. Organisms
4. Populations (began with Darwin); the fundamental unit of evolution
o individuals don't evolve (you are born with a fixed set of genes, and there
is no genetic change)
o evolution is the change of the frequency of genes in populations through
time
5. Communities
6. Ecosystems
CHARLES DARWIN
established the theory of evolution
convinced there must be an explanation for the world's biodiversity
didn't discover Natural Selection theory on his own
o co-discovered with A.R. Wallace
THEORY OF EVOLUTION
central unifying concept of biology
Dobzhansky was a fruit fly geneticist who brought genetics to the theory of
evolution
o Mendel's laws not yet discovered
o Darwin's theory was genetics-free
based on three observable facts:
1. variation: variation among individuals in a population
2. heredity: progeny resemble their parents more than unrelated individuals
3. selection: some forms are more successful at surviving and breeding than
others in a given environment
the ones that are better at surviving transmit more of their gene
patterns to the next generation; this is the concept of Natural
Selection
a common misconception is that evolution occurred in the past, not something
that is ongoing
THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES
main ideas:
1. all organisms have descended with modification from common ancestors
natural selection causes this modification over time
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2. the mechanism by which this evolution takes place is natural selection
BASIC CONCEPTS OF GENETICS
"Today, the theory of evolution is an accepted fact for everyone but a
fundamentalist minority, whose objections are based not on reasoning, but on
doctrinaire adherence to religious principles." - James D. Watson
theory is a body of facts that is known to be true; it is not a hypothesis
organisms have many thousands of genes which make up the
genome
(all of the
genes you have collectively is the genome). A human has about 20,000 genes.
o each gene is represented by two copies (I.e.: A and a) inherited each from
the maternal and paternal parent
if they are identical, the gene is
homozygous
(i.e.: AA)
if there are different, the gene is
heterozygous
(i.e.: Aa)
o gene copies are called
alleles
an allele is an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair)
that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome
the process by which alleles are transmitted was discovered by
Gregor Mendel in his study of pea plants
the more heterozygous genes you have, the healthier you are
o Why?
A majority of hereditary disorders are only harmful if
both copies
of
alleles of a gene are affected, which means protein products from both
genes may fail to operate properly. In heterozygous genotypes, one copy
of the gene is healthy and can produce fine proteins, so these individuals
are not affected and are considered just carriers.
the more homozygous genes, the more likely it is for inbreed to have occured in
your family
o
inbreed:
breed from closely related people, especially over many
generations
DEFINITION OF A GENE
o a
gene
is a unit of hereditary information located on the chromosomes
consisting of DNA
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Document Summary

Charles darwin: established the theory of evolution, convinced there must be an explanation for the world"s biodiversity, didn"t discover natural selection theory on his own, co-discovered with a. r. Selection: a common misconception is that evolution occurred in the past, not something that is ongoing. The origin of species: main ideas, all organisms have descended with modification from common ancestors, natural selection causes this modification over time, the mechanism by which this evolution takes place is natural selection. "today, the theory of evolution is an accepted fact for everyone but a fundamentalist minority, whose objections are based not on reasoning, but on doctrinaire adherence to religious principles. " A human has about 20,000 genes: each gene is represented by two copies (i. e. A majority of hereditary disorders are only harmful if both copies of alleles of a gene are affected, which means protein products from both genes may fail to operate properly.

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