EEB216 final review.doc

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Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
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CHAPTER ONE. Broad definition of Marine Mammals: _______________ mammals that spend part or ____ of its life in ____________ or __________ water There are approximately ____________ living species of marine mammals. a. ____ pinniped b. ____ cetecean c. ____ sirenian d. ____ sea otter e. ____ polar bear General adaptations that make marine mammals different from terrestrial mammals include: a. b. c. d. CHAPTER TWO. What is taxonomy? The ___________________, _____________________ and _______________ of the various species. Why study taxonomy? Taxonomy helps _______________ new species or ____________________ between existing ones, with the use of ______ studies to provide _________________ ___________________ for taxonomic identification. Why study classification? The _________________________ of the __________(species) into a type of ______________ such that each rank in- cludes all of the other ranks beneath it. Classification can be divided into 2 types: 1. ____________________ classification: overall similarity of the taxa 2. ____________________ classification: based on evolutionary history or pattern of descent Another method used to classify animals is called _____________________, which is the study of biological diversity with an emphasis on the _____________________ of phylogeny which allows for interpreting biological diversity. This study examines… 1. 2. 3. 4. Classification of Marine Mammals ______________  __________  ____________  ______________  _____________  __________ Phylum ______________: includes mammals, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles They are characterized by the presence of a ______________ or __________________ which is a supportive bar on the dorsal of an animal. Class ________________________: contains ______ orders made up of over ________ species Order 1. _____________________ consists of the following families: Mustelidae (_______________________) _____ genera and _______ species Odobenidae (____________________) Otariidae (____________________) _____ genera and _______ species Phocidae (_______________________) _____ genera and _______ species Ursidae (______________________________) Order 2. _________________________ consists of ____ sub-orders a. _________________________ (____________ whales), divided into 4 families Balaenopteridae (____________________________) _____ genera and _______ species Balaenidae (_________________________________) _____ genera and _______ species Neobalaenidae (_____________________________________________) Eschrichtiidae (___________________________________) b. __________________________, (___________________ whales) divided into approx. 10 families: Delphinidae (____________________) ____ - ____ genera and ____ - ____ species Monodontidae (________________/________________) ___ species Phocoenidae (____________________) Physeteridae (__________________________) _____ genera and _______ species Order 3. __________________, consists of 2 families Dugongidae (_____________________) _____ species Trichechidae (_____________________) _____ genera and _______ species General Classification of Marine Mammals Odobenidae (Walrus): - when walking on land, the walrus can ____________ its hind flippers underneath its body - in water, both hind and fore flippers are used for ___________________________ - the live on or near __________ ice throughout the _________ and _________________ and in summer on beaches Phocidae (Earless seals) - cannot rotate hind flippers and therefore on land they _______ along the surface with fore flippers and ________ their hind flippers behind them - also use fore flippers in water for ____________________ and there is _____________ between the toes in hind flippers (ex. _____________________, ________________, __________ and ____________seals) Trichechidae (Manatee) 3 species: _______________________________ ( west indian), ___________________________ (amazonian), ___________________________ (west african) - all feed on vegetation from ____________ to ____________ of water Differences between Manatees and Dugonidae (Dugongs) - dugong has __-shaped tail with ____ flukes while manatee has a _____________ caudal fin - Dugongs eat only at the ___________ of the water while manatees eat _________________ in the water sub-order Odontoceti (toothed whales) - mandibles: shaped into a broad shallow pan which is filled with fat Physteridae (1 species = Sperm whale) - males growing to ___m and weighing ____ tons - massive head (___-_____% of body length) - __________________ organ which is spongy tissue filled with _____________________ oil and used in echolocation Monodontidate (2 species, Delphinapterus leucas=_____________, Monodon monoceros=_________________) - belugas: _____to_____m, weighing up to ______kg. - narwhals: ____ to _____m, weighing up to ________kg - tusk which are produced when the ________ tooth on the ________ jaw grows through their lip Delphinidae - length and width of their ___________ has resulted in total tooth counts ranging from less than ____ to _______ - Orcinus Orca (Killer whales) are the _____________ of the Delphinidae: ____to____m, weighing up to _________kg - Cephalorhynchus commersonii (commerson’s dolphin) is one of the world’s _____________ dolphins: ____ to ____m Sub-order Mysticeti - ___ blow holes and __________ use echolocation to feed - largest animal ever to exist on earth: _________________ - over _______ tons Balaenopteridae (Humpback) - also called _________________ which means __________ or ____________ whales - up to _____m and weighing up to __________________kg - extremely long ____________ fins - feed on krill and small fish which they capture by blowing _____________________ to trap their prey Balaenidae - Eubalena glacialis (NorthAtlantic Right Whale): ____m weighing _____________kg. - found in the waters of ___________ US up to ______________________ - are ______________ feeders only (occasionally krill) Differences between Odontocete and Mysticete Whales Odontocete Mysticete Detention Blowhole Melon Body Size Lower jaw CHAPTER THREE. Life in sea started ___ billion years ago. Most marine mammals made their first appearance approx. ______-______ million years ago during the ___________________ period of the _____________ Era (the last ____ million years). Ceteceans and sirenians were the first to appear during that Eocene period _____ million years ago, followed by pinnipeds during the late _______________time period about ______ to ______ million years ago. Sea otters first appeared during the _________________times (____ million years ago) and polar bears made their appearance during ______________________ times (_____ a million years ago). CETECEAN As the first ancestors of whales were leaving land to return back to the seas 50 to 55 million years ago, it is estimated that it took “whales” ____ to _____ million years to adapt to living in various aquatic environments. The earliest cetecean known as __________________ were small amphibious animals that lived in fresh and brackish water approximately ______ million years ago. One of these animals was called the ________________ which seemed to walk around in shallow water. The ancestors of ceteceans are thought to be the _________________________, family of theArchaeocetids. Of all of theArchaeocetids, the __________________________, which was later corrected to ___________________, is believed to the be common ancestor of the ceteceans.Approximately ____ to ____ million years ago, the Basilosauridate evolved into the _________________ form which the origins of the modern whales can be tracked back to. PINNIPED Make up approx. _____% of the diversity of marine mammals today.At one time in the past there existed ____ genera and ______ species of walrus. Believed that pinnipeds originated from an animal named enaliarctos mealsi. SIRENIAN Earliest fossil dates back to the Eocene period, approx 50 million years ago. Manateee existed _____ million years ago during the Miocene period. Dugongs are decended from as many as _____ separate extinct species. SEAOTTER First originated from North Pacific region ___ to ____ million years ago. Widely believed to have descended from an animal ______________________. MODERN HISTORY Seal and dolphin drawings found carved from the ______________ era about 10,000 years ago. ________________ described dolphins, killer whales and ba
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