EEB204H1 - Study Notes.docx

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Department
Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Course
EEB204H1
Professor
Corey Goldman
Semester
Winter

Description
EEB204H1 STUDY NOTESCHAPTER ONE AN INTRODUCTION OF LIFE ON EARTHWHATISLIFEBIOLOGYcomesfromtheGreekrootsbiomeaninglifeandlogymeaningthestudyofAllorganismssharethesecharacteristicsoOrganismsacquireandusematerialsandenergyUseenergycontinuouslytoremainalivetomoveandtoconstructthecomplexmoleculesthatmakeupanorganismsbodyComesfromsunlightPhotosyntheticorganismstrapandstoreenergyfortheirownusebuttheenergystoredintheirbodiesalsopowersallotherformsoflifeItisreleasedbacktotheenvironmentasheatoOrganismsactivelymaintainorganizedcomplexityRequiresverypreciseinternalconditionsthatmustexpendenergyconstantlytomaintainExampleourbodieschangeconstantlydependingifwerehotorcoldinhotweatherwesweattocoolourselvesandincoldweatherourbodiesmetabolizemorefoodtogenerateheatoOrganismsperceiveandrespondtostimuliMustperceiveandrespondtotheirenvironmentsUsecellstodetectlighttemperaturesoundgravitytouchchemicalsandsomuchmorefromtheirsurroundingsAnimalshavenervousandmuscularsystemstoperceiveandrespondtostimuliPlantsfungiandsinglecelledorganismssenseandthenbendtowardsunlightandmovetowardfavourableconditionsandawayfromharmfulsubstancesoOrganismsgrowRequiresmaterialandenergyfromtheoutsideworldoOrganismsreproduceIncludedividinginhalfproducingseedsbearingliveyoungandlayingeggsOffspringinheritinstructionsforproducingandmaintaintheirparticularformsoflifecalledDNAoOrganismscollectivelyhavethecapacitytoevolveEVOLUTIONtheprocessbywhichmodernorganismshavedescendedfromearlieranddifferentformsoflifeInvolveschangesinDNAOnlylifeformscandoitallThecellisthebasicunitoflifeAmembraneenclosesitsstructuresandchemicalsinafluidenvironmentNATURALPROCESSESTHATUNDERLIEEVOLUTION1DifferencesinDNAamongmembersofapopulationGENESsegmentsofDNAtheyarethebasicunitsofheredityAcelldividesanditsDNAmustbecopiedsoitsgenescanbepassedalongCellscanmakeerrorsandarecalledmutationsMutationscanalsoresultfromdamagetoDNAenvironmentalfactors2InheritanceofthesedifferencesbytheiroffspringInheritedmutationsoccurinspermoreggcellsTheyalterDNAandpassfromparenttooffspringOnrareoccasionsinheritedmutationshelpsoffspringtosurviveandreproducemorethanthoselackingthemutationThisprovidestherawmaterialforevolution3NaturalselectionincreasedabilityofoffspringthatinheritcertainformsandcombinationsofDNAmoleculestosurviveandreproduceMostimportantprocessinevolutionIstheprocessbywhichorganismswithcertaininheritedtraitssurviveandreproducebetterthanothersinagivenenvironmentThegeneticmakeupofthepopulationasawholewillchangeovertimeADAPTATIONSstructurephysiologicalprocessesorbehavioursthathelpanorganismsurviveandreproduceinaparticularenvironmentTheyhelporganismsaccomplishfeatsthathelpensuretheirsurvivalandreproductionDifferentenvironmentswillbesubjectedtodifferenttypesofnaturalselectionGreatdifferencesthatcontinueforalongperiodoftimemaycausenaturalselectiontocausepopulationstobecomesufficientlydifferentfromoneanothertopreventinterbreedinganewspeciesExtinctionhappenswhentheenvironmentchangesfasterthantheevolutionCLASSIFICATIONSOFLIFETherearedifferentlevelsofinquirythatmakeupthestudyoflifeoELEMENTSsubstancesthatcannotbebrokendownorconvertedtoasimplersubstanceoATOMretainsallthepropertiesofanelementoAtomscombineinspecificwaystoformMOLECULESoComplexmoleculesformthebuildingblocksofcellsoCellsofasimilartypecombinetoformTISSUESoTissuesunitetoformfunctionalunitscalledORGANSoThegroupingoforgansthatworktogethertoperformaspecificbodyfunctionisanORGANSYSTEMoOrgansystemscombinetocarryouttheactivitiesoflifeTherearelevelsoforganizationofgroupsoforganismsoPOPULATIONagroupofthesamespeciesoASPECIESconsistsofallorganismsthataresimilarenoughtointerbreedoCOMMUNITYformedbypopulationsofdifferentspeciesthatliveinthesameareaandinteractwithoneanotheroECOSYSTEMconsistsofacommunityandthenonlivingenvironmentthatsurroundsitoBIOSPHEREincludesallCategoriesdomainsoforganismsoThethreemaingroupsBacteriaconsistofasinglesimplecellArchaeaconsistofasinglesimplecellEukaryaProtistsKingdomsoFungioPlantsoanimalsoTheclassificationreflectsfundamentaldifferencesamongtheircelltypesallcellsaresurroundedbyathinsheetofmoleculescalledthePLASMAMEMBRANEandcontainDNAandorganellesstructuresspecializedtocarryoutspecificfunctionsEUKARYOTICCELLScomplexcontainavarietyoforganellessurroundedbymembraneshasanucleuswiththecellsDNAPROKARYOTICCELLSsimplesmallerlackorganelleswithmembranesDNAisnotconfinedwithinanucleuswhethertheorganismisunicellularormulticellularUNICELLULARthereisrelativelylittlecommunicationcooperationororganizationcomparedtoMULTICELLULARandhowtheorganismsacquiresitsenergy
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