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Final

EEB384H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Chelydridae, Viperidae, Kingsnake


Department
Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Course Code
EEB384H1
Professor
Luke Malher
Study Guide
Final

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Laboratory 1: Reptiles & Amphibians of Ontario
Station 1
In the mounted turtle skeleton, what two bones are immediately distal to the humerus?
Radius, ulna
In the mounted turtle skeleton, what two bones are immediately distal to the femur?
Tibia, fibula
What part of the axial skeleton is posterior to the pelvic girdle?
Caudal vertebrae
Do you notice anything noteworthy about these same bones in the bullfrog?
Absent in bullfrog
Station 2
In this mounted (half of a) sea turtle skull, what three bones meet the postorbital along its
ventrolateral border? Squamosal, jugal, quadrate
What bones meet the postorbital along its dorsomedial
border?
Parietal, frontal
Which bone is anterior to the parietal bone?
Frontal
Station 3
Which bones bear teeth in the crocodilian skull?
1
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Maxilla, premaxilla, dentary
Which bones bear teeth in the snake skull?
Pterygoid, dentary, maxilla
Which bones bear teeth in the toad skull?
No teeth
Station 4: Bufonidae
Ontario has two toads, and they can be distinguished from all other anurans by their very
warty skin, and the presence of an enlarged gland (parotoid gland) behind each eye.
Station 5: Ranidae
Ontario has six species of ranid frogs, which can be distinguished from other anurans in
the province by their prominent dorsolateral folds. Ranids are also generally
characterized by robust bodies, a large and distinct tympanum, long hindlimbs, and
extensive webbing on the hindfeet. Some of Ontario’s ranids can be tough to
distinguish. For this class, be certain you can tell the distinctive Wood Frog (Rana
sylvatica) apart from its congeners. These six species are:
Rana catesbeiana (Lithobates catesbeianus) Rana pipiens (Lithobates pipiens)
Rana palustris (Lithobates palustris) Rana clamitans (Lithobates clamitans) Rana
sylvatica (Lithobates sylvaticus) Rana septentrionalis (Lithobates septentrionalis)
2
Fowlers Toad (Anaxyrus fowleri)
parotoid glands are in contact with cranial crests
black spots encircle more than 3 warts
American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus)
parotoid glands are separated from the toad’s
prominent cranial crests
black spots encircle 1-3 warts
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Wood Frog – black banding under eye. Little colouration on back, darker brown banding
on legs, small (size of thumb)
Station 6: Hylidae
Ontario has five species of hylids (listed below). Hylids tend to be smaller and more
gracile than ranids, and many have enlarged toepads at the tips of their digits
(although these pads are reduced in less arboreal species). Some species have a
visible tympanum (e.g., Hyla versicolor), but it is not typically as large or prominent
as in ranids. Most have webbing
between the toes (especially Acris
and Hyla).
The Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor)
can be distinguished from other
Ontario hylids by its large toepads
and warty skin. Take notes on the
features that distinguish Ontario’s
other four hylid species (e.g., which
species has a “V”-shaped spot
between the eyes, and which has an
“X” on its dorsum)?
Acris crepitans –V-shape, Pseudacris crucifer – X-shaped on dorsum,
3
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