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EEB428H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Global Warming Potential, Boron, Energy Conversion Efficiency


Department
Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Course Code
EEB428H1
Professor
Rowan Sage
Study Guide
Midterm

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EEB428 Midterm Study Guide
Lecture 1:
-climate change = just one of the parameters of global change
-inc science and evidence has shown a fast rate in global mean temp inc (with a
huge inc in temp after WWII era (industrial shit))
-BUT, global change is the issue, not just simply climate change
ie. we can still severely harm the planet by landscape conversion,
eutrophication and loss of biodiversity (ie. drivers that can radically
impact the biosphere of the world)
-no one under 31 has lived through a month of global temps that fell below the 20th
century average (last was Feb ’85)
-each year is above the long term avg and is increasing even higher than the long
term average
last year was the warmest year on record
Human involvement:
-humans dominate the earth and urbanize everything
-natural, uneffected forests are greatly different than forests that are human
effected
-enterprises effect everything (either directly or indirectly)
land transformation, biotic additions (invasion, hunting, ect), global
biogeochemistry (C, N, H2O, ect)
these then effect climate change and biodiversity
has resulted in a concern for water availability (being used for agriculture)
and natural fish (mostly farmed now)
2 Criteria/Drivers to describe global change:
1. Direct impacts of global scale changes to fluid envelopes of planet
-atmospheric change
-mostly CO2 enrichment, but also CH4, N2O and O
-changes to the climate system
-changes in energy balance due to land structure change
-changes to the ocean chemistry
-pH, salinity, CO2 content, temp, nutrients
-3 above are drivers of global change (these drivers are then driven by CO2 emissions and
fossil fuel use, ect)
2. Scaling of many widespread local impacts to the global level (regional changes that are
so pervasive have global consequences)
-alteration of biogeochemical processes
-alteration of land surface cover (albedo)
-alteration of species composition and their contribution to energy and material cycling
-due to overhunting and invasive introduction
-ground level ozone accumulation

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5 Major Global Change Drivers on the Biodiversity of Earth
-ordered in what will be the greatest drivers by 2100
-NOTE: this is for the globe; regionally, drivers will have more or less of an effect
1. land use change
-leaves no room for native species (due to urbanization)
2. global climate change (from GHG emissions and albedo change)
- imp statistic: at the end of the last ice age, the climate warmed by 8oC
some of this inc was due to a 50% inc in CO2 (ie. by 100ppm), the other
warming was due to vegetation covering the north and south poles, which
greatly reduced the worlds surface albedo caused more warming
positive feedback loop
-NOTE: not the greatest threat to biodiversity (land use is)
3. terrestrial eutrophication (mainly N2)
-huge impact on biosphere
4. invasion by exotic species/biotic exchange
5. atmospheric CO2 enrichment
-direct impact on organisms (photosynthesis, ect), effects on transpiration, ect
Other Global Change Drivers
-terrestrial O3 pollution
-pesticide pollution
-species exploitation (hunting/harvesting) (especially in marine ecosystems)
-stratospheric O3 depletion and UV-B inc
-depletion of ozone has dec greatly due to stopping using O3 eating chemicals
can almost be removed from list
-acid rain (also reduced greatly as of late)
9 Planetary Boundaries
-climate biodiversity loss, N cycle, climate change, O3 depletion, ocean acidification,
water use, P cycle, land use change, chemical pollution and atmospheric aerosol loading
-P and N cycle = biogeochemical flow boundary (making it 9 boundaries)
- imp: we far exceed biodiversity loss (way exceeds, due to habitat loss, over hunting, ect),
N cycle enrichment and climate change
-we are currently in the operating space for O3 depletion, ocean acidification, water use, P
cycle and land use change
-but operating space is reducing for water use as climate change increases (ie. total
amount of water use we are allotted is lowering)
-haven’t been able to measure chemical pollution and atmospheric aerosol loading
Organisms, Biodiversity and Global Change
-species impacted by global change drivers
-species in turn interact with global processes and can drive global change (either
inc of dec in number or actions and further drive global change)
-species provide ecosystem services

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-atm regeneration, climate moderation, H2O purification, pollution control,
landscape stabilization, biological energy, conversion of inorganic compounds to
organic compounds
if you get rid of species, you lose these processes
finically, we must consider how much it will cost to recreate the
processes that the species produce
oimp when considering wetland laws (building)
b/c wetlands purify water and shit
-ie. land use changes + biotic introductions + atm changes effects species composition
and diversity changes ecosystem processes effects ecosystem service to humans
Global Warming and GHGs
-energy is emitted by every object: E = εσT4 (T = temp)
-called stephan-boltzman equation; used to calculate emissions
used to calculate long-waved emissions from atm/ground (see global
warming notes below)
-difference in thermal emission will show who loses heat to who
eg. ocean = 20 C and 420 thermal emission watts/m2 and clear sky above =
-20C and 240watts/m2 ocean losses 120 watts/m2 without a cloud cover
(losses less with cloud cover because it insulates)
goes from higher to lower temp
-major GHGs: H2O, CO2, N2O, CH4
-absorb in long-waved window
-absorb IR emitted from earth surface and re-emits it in all directions
-natural GHG = + 33oC (from -18 +15)
- global warming: sun emits short-wave length waves (UV) earth atm absorbs some, but
at short-wave window the waves go right through to the ground; absorbs these
wavelength and reemit this energy as long-wavelengths waves these photonic long-
waved emission can escape the earth through the long-wave window (around room
temp); this window is due to low CO2 and methane (and N2O and CH4) (which absorb at
this wavelength) inc CO2 and methane (absorbs at this wavelength) fills this window
absorbs this heat (much of earth energy emissions) and then reemitted by CO2 and
methane as photonic heat (RADIATED) (not bounced back)) (called back radiation)
Anthropogenic GHGs:
-CO2 GHG origins:
-fossil fuel > deforestation/decay of biomass (in flux due to changes in
deforestation rates) > other
fossil fuel emissions from biological/ecological issues = 55%
due to forestry, agriculture, energy supply
-changing from coal burning (CO2 emissions) to natural gases (CH4 emissions) just
changes which GHG is released
-CO2 also helps enhance methane released by stuff
-when you strip out natural forests (for rice paddies or crops, ect) then there is lots
of CH4 (methane) released
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