Key Concepts- pol .docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Jeffrey Kopstein

Key Concepts: The End Of History: Francis Fukuyama discussed this stating, “There is no alternative to liberalism and capitalism”. When we find an alternative then we will reach an end to history. Clash of Civilizations: Samuel Huntington purposed the “Theory that states that cultural/religious identities will be a primary source for conflict in a post cold war world”. Ancient Liberty: Benjamin Constant referred to the Greeks when talking about ancient liberties and compared and contrasted modern liberty to ancient liberty. He suggested that “the aim of the ancients was the sharing of social power among the citizens of the same fatherland: this is what they called liberty”. Modern Liberty: Discussed how “The aim of the moderns and modern liberty is the enjoyment of security in private pleasures; and they call liberty the guarantees accorded by institutions to these pleasures”. Liberalism: Is a political worldview that focuses on ideas of liberty and equality. Liberals have a wide verity of views depending the principals of liberty and equality. Support ideas such as fair/free elections, civil rights, and freedom of religion, free trade and private property. Communism: Apolitical theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs. Communism does work but is flawed because absolute equality will never happen between classes (unrealistic). Totalitarianism: Is a form of government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control over all aspects of life, the individual is subordinated to the state, and opposing political and cultural expression is suppressed. Class/Class struggle: Class: Adivision based on quality, rank, or grade Class Struggle: Marx states that class struggle or conflict is the tension or antagonism, which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes. Materialism: Atendency to consider material possessions and physical comfort as more important than spiritual values. This relates to class divides as well as the rich and poor. Proletariat: Karl Marx coined the term that states “The class of industrial wage earners who, possessing neither capital nor production means, must earn their living by selling their labor. The lower class. Bourgeoisie: The upper/middle class or the denoted the wealthy that originated during the latter part of the middleAges False Consciousness: Aterm used for Marxists for the way the form ideology based upon material, ideological and institutional processes in capitalist society mislead members of the proletariat. These processes are said to hide the true relations of forces between classes and the real state of affairs regarding the development of pre-socialist society. Means of production: Refers to he physical, non-human inputs used in production. Can be capital assets used to produce wealth such as machinery tools and factories. Evolutionary Socialism: Refers to
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