ENG100H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Sound, Sound Recording And Reproduction, Telephoto Lens

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Published on 10 Apr 2013
aspect ratio the width-to-height ratio of the film frame as it appears on a movie screen or television monitor
academy ratio an aspect ratio of screen width to height of 1.37:1; similar to the standard television ratio of 1.33:1 or 4:3
widescreen ratio the wider, rectangular aspect ratio of typically 1.85:1 or 2.35:1
widescreen processes any of a number of systems introduced in the 1950s that widened the aspect ratio and the dimensions of the
movie screen
anamorphic the cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35mm film or other visual recording
media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio; or the projection format in which a distorted image is „stretched‟ by an anamorphic
projection lens to recreate the original aspect ratio on the viewing screen
masks attachments to the camera or devices added optically that cut off portions of the frame so that part of the image is black
letterboxed practice of transferring film shot in a widescreen aspect ratio to standard-width video formats while preserving the
film‟s original aspect ratio
pan-and-scan process the process used to transfer a widescreen-format film to the standard television aspect ratio; a computer-
controlled scanner determines the most important action in the image, and then crops peripheral action and space or presents the
original frame as two separate images
shot one continuous camera take (can be moving, but cannot “cut” or “edit” to another shot/view)
framing the portion of the filmed subject that appears within the borders of the frame; it correlates with camera distancee.g.,
long shot or medium close-up
shot scale can foster intimacy with a character, or conversely, it can swallow the character in its environment
extreme close-up (ECU) a framing that is comparatively tighter than a close-up, singling out, for instance, a person‟s eyes, or the
petal of a flower
close-ups framing that shows details of a person or an object, such as a character‟s face
medium close-up a framing that shows a comparatively larger area than a close-up, such as a person shown from the shoulders up;
typically used during conversation sequences
medium shot a middle-ground framing in which we see the body of a person from approximately the waist up
medium long shot a framing that increases the distance between the camera and the subject compared with a medium shot; it
shows most of an individual‟s body
long shot a framing that places considerable distance between the camera and the scene or person so that the object or person is
recognizable but defined by the large space and background
establishing shot generally an initial long shot that establishes the location and setting and that orients the viewer in space to a
clear view of the action
master shot a film recording of an entire dramatized scene, from start to finish, from an angle that keeps all the players in view; it
is often a long shot and can sometimes perform a double function as an establishing shot
mobile framing pan, tilt, dolly or tracking shot, crane, hand-held, steadicam, motion control
pan left or right rotation of camera, whose tripod or mount remains in fixed position that produces horizontal movement onscreen
tilts an upward or downward rotation of the camera, whose tripod or mount remains in a fixed position, producing a vertical
movement screen
dolly shot a shot in which the camera is moved on a wheeled dolly that follows a determined course
crane shot a shot taken from a camera mounted on a crane that can vary distance, height, and angle
high angles a shot directed at a downward angle on individuals or a scene
low angles a shot taken from a position lower than its subject
canted angle can appear tilted, askew, unbalanced (sometimes referred to as “dutching” the camera)
camera position the position from which the character is shot
editing the process of selecting and joining film footage and shots
cut an editing transition between two separate shots achieved without optical/special effects
dissolve an optical effect that briefly superimposes one shot over the next; one image fades out as another fades in and takes its
places; sometimes called a lap dissolve because two images overlap in the printing process
fade-in an optical effect in which a black screen gradually brightens to a full picture; often used after a fade-out to create a
transition between scenes
fade-out an optical effect in which an image gradually darkens to black, often ending a scene or a film
wipes a transition used to joint two shots by moving a vertical, horizontal, or sometimes diagonal line across one image to replace
it with a second image that follows the line across the frame
iris a shot in which the corners of the frame are masked in a black, usually circular, form; an iris-out is a transition that gradually
obscures the image by moving in; an iris-in expands to reveal the entire image
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