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plato and nussbaum cont

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autonomous, it doesnt have a relationship with something outside of it.
The meaning of a literary text is fixed and stable; therefore, we can decode a text by
objectively analyzing its constitutive elements
Formalists tend to be very rigorous, analytical, and systematic
Constitutive linguistic elements—words, phrases, syntax, etc.
Generic conventions—allusions, images, rhythm, structure, figures of speech, tone,
movement, dialogue, lighting, mise en scene, characterization, setting, themes, etc.
that are peculiar to the genre
Rhetorical devices: ambiguities and ironies, litotes and understatements,
catachreses, etc. by which the text expresses or withholds meaning
Extraneous Matter: Formalists do not read literature as a communicative apparatus
to anything outside of the literature or in the real world
ReaderAffective Fallacy or belief that the reader can determine what the text
means by analyzing the emotional, intellectual, and physical reactions it has
aroused in him/her
Contextundecidablecannot determine the context of a literary work of art
Message—paraphrastic statements about poems outline their themes (what they
are about), not what their core meanins is
Cleanth Brooks The heresy of paraphrase
A: The Poem: a poem is not about something, it is about itself
Sum of its constituent elements conceived as a total pattern, the structure of
which is determined by those constituent elements taken together
Simulates reality by being an experience rather than any mere statement about
experience or any mere abstraction from experience.
The notion of structure occurs over and over
B: Its Structure: meanings and evaluations and interpretations that are unified by
the principles of blancing and harmonizing connotations, attitudes, and meanings
into a totality that consists of dissimilar rather than similar elemesnts
Gestures or attitudes in the poem arising from modifications and qualifications
that constituent elements makes to one another.
Irony: is privileged as the primary rhetorical device in poetry
C: Its constituent elements: Irony, Ambiguity, Paradox, Metaphor
D: Its Meaning: the internal order set up by the poem’s constituent elements in its
inner core tather than
What the poem is aboutparaphraseable content (this lies outside the poem”)
E: Comment:
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Though he thinks that a poems constituent elements exists in harmony, Brooks
believes that they exist in an uneasy, rather than in perfect, harmony, one that is
structured by irony and paradox
There is something specific about poetry, it is defined by the deliberate attempt by
the writer to use words/write contrary to the convention and to establish protocols
to reading and writing
Irony-arising from the poets attempt to wrench meaning from language by
breaching or violating its (lexical, morphological, syntactic, and idiomatic)
conventions and, thus, to give back t his audience the unity of the experience itself
as man knows it in his own experience, irony, which is caused by the interplay
between the multiple meanings of poetic elements are verbal
incongruities, contradictions, inconsistencies, and discrepancies. It is
through the ambiguity and paradox generated by itony that poetry is able to
facilitate mimesis or the simulation of reality although it does so bybeing,’
rather than describing or talking about experience.
Irony: Dissimulation, especially through understatement
A. Classical: In Greek comedy the eiron was the underdog, weak bu clever, who
regularly triumphed over the stupid but boastful alazon
Irony properonly the ironist is aware of the multiple meanings of her
Sarcasmironist and audience (including target) are aware of the multiple
meanings of her words/speech
Asterism/Charientismkinds of jokes
Mimesis—imitation intended to ridicule someone or something
B. Middle Ages through Renaissance to Neoclassical Age. A figure of speech
by which one indicates the opposite of what one says
Romantic. A “consistent alternation of affirmation and negation, of exuberant
emergence from oneself and self-critical retreat into oneself, of enthusiasm and
Types: **poetic irony is what we are most concerned with
Verbala statement whose intended and stated meaning differ
Tragic—contrast between a person and her desires
**Poetic Irony: refers to the principle of structure in poetry that fuses the
ambiguity, paradox, multiplicity, and variety of meaning in a work into a unity,
wholeness, and identity or reconciling power that resolves the dissonant
meanings of poetic elements into a harmonious unity
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