ENG305H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Gruel, Menippean Satire, Houyhnhnm

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Published on 15 Dec 2012
of 9
write about at least 4 texts (2 for each question), use at least 3 that didn’t use for essay
o function of literature in 18ce
o authorship [spectator]
o on reading
o on satire [contradiction of social function, correcting morals vs personally violating,
tactics, reasons] -> Beggar + Gulliver?
o historical context question, historical change of literature (social/eco situations)
o literary form/convention
learning in 18ce
o not factually based, broad, generalizations of corpus of text
o synthesize, make authoritative pronouncements
o feel over time, intuitive sense of literature, why important/interesting
o teaches readers by hitting on emotional level (lady’s dressing room -> don’t look at
women same way)
o essay on criticism -> learning is progress like dancing, like diet… important learning is
o learning by experience verses on the death of dr swift futility of trying to control
self-image, eulogy of self to be read in tavern with noise…
o learning from experience, feeling
o spectator -> imitate, feel authority, act like me, read me… do it day after day, process
will make you different in end than beginning [vs news not remembered after put down
o emotional level, impact, can’t regurgitate info [if so, half-learned, not finished as people]
o reading profoundly social, rely on cultural institutions to control society and keep it
from disintegrating into chaos… literature as crucial role in governing
Social nature/function
o more isolated and marginalized writers… begin by situating self in gendered bodies,
positions of marginalization, articulate position asymmetry, grotesque body, deformity,
transgression… relate to idea that experiences don’t relate to others because women
o Lady Mary Wortley Montagu equality
o beautiful woman -> face maimed by disease
o Socioeconomic factors of beauty… losing beauty for women = financial and social ruin
(beauty sole ambition and reason for life)
o Virgil’s Eclogue… shepherds cry -> nature responds somehow
o Belief in town no way to explore pain, nature deaf to it, isolation
o Smallpox
o Lamenting beauty disappeared from smallpox
No borrowed luster can my charms restore
o Angry at chemists and doctors who promised cure, saying how sellers and
vendors they sold much because men bought gifts for her from them
False and trifling is art you boast, no art can give back beauty
o Satirical element? Ridiculing Flavia for lamenting she won’t get gifts anymore
Beauty’s fled, presents/lovers are no more.. time when opera tickets
poured before feet, earliest cherries mine
o Disembodied voice, exchange between impersonal voice and speaker
Cease, hapless maid, forsake mankind… men mock the idol of former vow
World adieu, toilette, patches, operas, circles… live in deserted place
o Flavia complaining vs voice countering
o Flavia looking in mirror, don’t recognize self, disembodiment and
depersonalization, alienation from body… “frightful spectre,” to myself
o Masked, deprivation and echoing of voices, confusion of voices and identity and
others… chamber of self
o 18CE moderating suffering
o Mira’s Picture
o Mary Leapor, housemaid, taught self to read, published after life but anticipating
publication in poems… female authorship
o Liked reading Pope
o Anti-pastoral genre, unattractive shepherdess
o Interested in how she will be viewed from people in the city when and if she is
o Mira’s non-beauty discussed at lengths by other men, end note that the description is a
caricature -> ill-proportioned, exaggerated flaws
o Muttering, soiled linen, stranger to beams of day, rock-skin, freckles, eyes dim,
rush-candle reading wicked plays than milking cows, brows studious, has teeth
o Rules” of not satirizing flaws and defects that people can’t change, but what people
should do a bout… unfair practice to ridicule deformity or embarrass someone for
something they couldn’t help… but affectation, if they try to cover them up, fair game ->
Swift and Pope
o But at the same time, contradiction that body embodies moral character
o Immoral habits wound the appearance…
o Labourer but neglect duties and study at night… like Mary would have gotten in trouble
for studying instead of doing chores
o Embodying flaws as female author… construct authorial persona, complex figure
o Self-denial and criticism
o Her shape -> Mountains on mountains -> Pope’s essay on self-criticism… always uphill,
new hurdle and never-ending struggle to teach and perfect oneself
o Physically embodying alps, body is mountain and mountains… listening shoulders…
routine at night, muttering verses to herself
o Working class writer but has right to work because she’s doing her homework
o Living and breathing craft, comparable to aristocratic and spontaneous approach to
poetry… more dedicated as make time when they don’t have time
o More legitimate as a labourer because can put blood and sweat into her poetry
o Change in 18CE culture, rise of different idea of authorship, involving work and
becoming profession
o Pope first professional writer in English
o Labour and effort makes person better writer, there should be more work involved
o Comparable to romantic poets… spontaneous, not as life’s work
o Realist poet… uncovering realities and gruel labours involved with poetry (+ pastoral is
idealized, but there has to be work involved in it somehow… taken for granted)… facing
o End: note, this description of her person is a caricature (and men must tend to cattle)
o Lover: A Ballad
o Woman not supposed to express desires and thoughts
o Mary eloped to go against arranged marriage
o Stating kind of man she wants
o Women expected to pretend to not know bodies or what they want… consent
and force ambiguous, men and women meant to play game
I hate to be cheated
Oh was there a man… good sense and good nature, value his pleasure,
contribute to mine… for I would have the power
I know too well how time flies along, we live but few years
Never be fond of any but me
o Revolutionary for explicit statement of desired partner
o Ballad considered traditional, unmediated, sincere and spontaneous
o Ovid’s Daphne->tree
Harden like trees, like rivers grow cold -> toasters and songsters never
enter pass of my heart
o until perfect lover comes along will keep chaste
o doesn't want rudeness, disgust and disapproval at men making sexual advances
o stating clearly at a time when remarks may not be taken seriously
o fop effeminate man obsessed with appearances
o pointing to power dynamics between men and women
o champagne and chicken, ceasing to be formal, her to be proud… rejecting
feminity, idealizing fantasy of showing her sexual desires
be banished from discretion and fear
o romantic relationship and friendship with partner
friend and lover handsomely mixed
o chaste not because she’s boring/religious… but waiting for person
o Anne Finch Unequal Fetters
o Men have longer chains than women… begging for love despite marriage
Marriage does but slightly tie men while close prisoners we remain

Document Summary

No borrowed luster can my charms restore: angry at chemists and doctors who promised cure, saying how sellers and vendors they sold much because men bought gifts for her from them. Ridiculing flavia for lamenting she won"t get gifts anymore. Beauty"s fled, presents/lovers are no more time when opera tickets poured before feet, earliest cherries mine: disembodied voice, exchange between impersonal voice and speaker". Cease, hapless maid, forsake mankind men mock the idol of former vow. Oh was there a man good sense and good nature, value his pleasure, contribute to mine for i would have the power. I know too well how time flies along, we live but few years. Never be fond of any but me: revolutionary for explicit statement of desired partner, ballad considered traditional, unmediated, sincere and spontaneous, ovid"s daphne->tree. Marriage does but slightly tie men while close prisoners we remain: tone of resentment.