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Poetry Exam Terms

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Daniel Tysdal

Poetry Exam Terms: Enjambment- when a sentence is on two lines, carries over to the next. May rely on caesura. Ex. “They lie scattered// like inflated pebbles. Native//” Free verse- relatively new invention, lines have irregular # of beats - verse in which the lines are different widths Caesura- a pause in the middle of a poem. Ex. My mistress, when she walks, treads - no regular rhyme scheme on the ground. - invented by poets who had been brought up in the tradition of free verse Rhyme scheme- pattern of rhyme - admits an element of chance- may not adhere to the rigid structure of Alliteration- repetition of particular consonants the past, but can still have its own structure Assonance- repetition of vowels Metrical verse- poems in counted lines, metrical lines and patterns, there can be lines and stanza forms Ballad Stanza - poems in counted lines are written in units called feet - first and third lines are unrhymed and have 4 beats - foot: one stressed syllable accompanied by 1 or 2 unstressed syllables - second and fourth lines are rhymed and have 3 beats - iambic meter most common stanza lengths (can be found in metrical or free verse): Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet  couplets- pairs of lines - appeared first  quatrains- 4 lines - has an octave followed by a sestet  sestets- 6 - octave: abbaabba - sestet: cdecde  octave- 8 Tetrameter- whose woods/ these are/ I think/ I know (iambic) Pentameter- the woods/ decay,/ the woods/ decay/ and fall/ (iambic) English (Shakespearean) Sonnet Hexameter- I will/ arise/ and go/ now, and/ go to/ Innisfree (iambic) - has three 4 line quatrains, rhyming: ababcdcdefef *common meters have been trimester, tetrameter, pentameter - one couplet, gg Rising rhythm: - volta: a turn that occurs around the 9 line and is a shift towards a - Iamb- unstressed, stressed u’ resolution (example: sonnet 18) - Anapest- unstressed, unstressed, stressed uu’ Villanelle- a French form, used by Theodore Roethke, Bishop  “Ah Sunflower”- Where the youth,/ pined away,/ with desire (anapestic trimester) - 5 pentameter tercets (three lines); rhyming aba Falling rhythm: - followed by 1 pentameter quatrain; rhyming abaa - lines 1 and 3 of the first five tercets are repeated alternatively - Trochee- stressed, unstressed ‘u  “The Tyger”- Tyger!/ Tyger!/ burning/ bright (trochaic - 19 lines tetrameter) Poetry and Origins in Life (Private, Public, Nature and Time): - Dactyl- stressed, unstressed, unstressed ‘uu  This is the/forest prim/eval the/ murmuring/ pines and the/ - private life: an event that is a private experience to an individual expressed as a poem hemlocks (dactylic hexameter)  ex. Brith, adolescence, marriage, death To stress importance, or unimportance: - public life: moments or events that we can publicly relate to  ex. War, religion holiday, etc - Spondee- stressed, stressed - Pyrrhic- unstressed, unstressed  Often have historic relevance, ex. Langston Hughes’ Harlem- although it is written as though it is a moment in private life, the larger historical context makes the reader realize the End Stop- a grammatical pause at the end of a line of verse (can be a comma, period, or semicolon). poems greater relevance and connection to slavery and freedom of rights movements. The poem suggests that private rebellions against authorities can lead to dramatic shifts in - content- genre public life. - Speech act- manner of expression, apology, protest, etc. - Environment in which the poem is occurring is also taken to account; - out form- lines, rhyme, length spatial setting- is it in nature, in a home, at school? - Nature and time: Imagery- the representation of sensory experience through language  Nature and changing seasons as a narrative device- using Types of Imagery: spring as a means of expressing individual growth - visual  Seasons describe stages in human life - auditory - olfactory- smell Poetry and Cliché: - gustatory- taste - poets can work with clichés to come up with original representations - tactile- touch - ex. Infant Sorrow and Infant Joy by William Blake - organic- internal sensations like hunger - Infant Joys is the typical nativity poem. The mother expresses joy, and - kinesthetic- tension of muscles wonder what she should name her baby - Infant Sorrow takes the position of the baby and shows an entirely Metaphor- figurative term is substituted or identified with a literal term; comparison different picture of birth. The baby is a “fiend.” - 2 components: tenor and vehicle Poetry and Disequilibrium: - tenor: abstract component; the primary literal term (what is actually being described as something) - disequilibrium caused by structure - vehicle: concrete component; the secondary figurative term (the thing Poetry and Poignancy:
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