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University of Toronto St. George
A Maurice

 aspect ratio  the width-to-height ratio of the film frame as it appears on a movie screen or television monitor  academy ratio  an aspect ratio of screen width to height of 1.37:1; similar to the standard television ratio of 1.33:1 or 4:3  widescreen ratio  the wider, rectangular aspect ratio of typically 1.85:1 or 2.35:1  widescreen processes  any of a number of systems introduced in the 1950s that widened the aspect ratio and the dimensions of the movie screen  anamorphic  the cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio; or the projection format in which a distorted image is „stretched‟ by an anamorphic projection lens to recreate the original aspect ratio on the viewing screen  masks  attachments to the camera or devices added optically that cut off portions of the frame so that part of the image is black  letterboxed  practice of transferring film shot in a widescreen aspect ratio to standard-width video formats while preserving the film‟s original aspect ratio  pan-and-scan process  the process used to transfer a widescreen-format film to the standard television aspect ratio; a computer- controlled scanner determines the most important action in the image, and then crops peripheral action and space or presents the original frame as two separate images  shot  one continuous camera take (can be moving, but cannot “cut” or “edit” to another shot/view)  framing  the portion of the filmed subject that appears within the borders of the frame; it correlates with camera distance—e.g., long shot or medium close-up  shot scale  can foster intimacy with a character, or conversely, it can swallow the character in its environment  extreme close-up (ECU)  a framing that is comparatively tighter than a close-up, singling out, for instance, a person‟s eyes, or the petal of a flower  close-ups  framing that shows details of a person or an object, such as a character‟s face  medium close-up  a framing that shows a comparatively larger area than a close-up, such as a person shown from the shoulders up; typically used during conversation sequences  medium shot  a middle-ground framing in which we see the body of a person from approximately the waist up  medium long shot  a framing that increases the distance between the camera and the subject compared with a medium shot; it shows most of an individual‟s body  long shot  a framing that places considerable distance between the camera and the scene or person so that the object or person is recognizable but defined by the large space and background  establishing shot  generally an initial long shot that establishes the location and setting and that orients the viewer in space to a clear view of the action  master shot  a film recording of an entire dramatized scene, from start to finish, from an angle that keeps all the players in view; it is often a long shot and can sometimes perform a double function as an establishing shot  mobile framing  pan, tilt, dolly or tracking shot, crane, hand-held, steadicam, motion control  pan  left or right rotation of camera, whose tripod or mount remains in fixed position that produces horizontal movement onscreen  tilts  an upward or downward rotation of the camera, whose tripod or mount remains in a fixed position, producing a vertical movement screen  dolly shot  a shot in which the camera is moved on a wheeled dolly that follows a determined course  crane shot  a shot taken from a camera mounted on a crane that can vary distance, height, and angle  high angles  a shot directed at a downward angle on individuals or a scene  low angles  a shot taken from a position lower than its subject  canted angle  can appear tilted, askew, unbalanced (sometimes referred to as “dutching” the camera)  camera position  the position from which the character is shot  editing  the process of selecting and joining film footage and shots  cut  an editing transition between two separate shots achieved without optical/special effects  dissolve  an optical effect that briefly superimposes one shot over the next; one image fades out as another fades in and takes its places; sometimes called a lap dissolve because two images overlap in the printing process  fade-in  an optical effect in which a black screen gradually brightens to a full picture; often used after a fade-out to create a transition between scenes  fade-out  an optical effect in which an image gradually darkens to black, often ending a scene or a film  wipes  a transition used to joint two shots by moving a vertical, horizontal, or sometimes diagonal line across one image to replace it with a second image that follows the line across the frame  iris  a shot in which the corners of the frame are masked in a black, usually circular, form; an iris-out is a transition that gradually obscures the image by moving in; an iris-in expands to reveal the entire image  continuity editing (invisible editing)  the institutionalized system of Hollywood editing that uses cuts and other transitions to establish verisimilitude, to construct a coherent time and space, and to tell stories clearly and efficiently; continuity editing follows the basic principle that each shot or scene has a continuous relationship to the next  continuity style  the systematic approach to filmmaking associated with classical Hollywood cinema, utilizing a broad array of technical choices from continuity editing to scoring that support the principle of effacing technique in order to emphasize human agency and narrative clarity  soviet montage  a style that emphasizes the breaks and contrasts between images joined by a cut, following Soviet silent-era filmmakers‟ use of the term  dialectical editing  was abrupt and jagged and did not aim for the smooth continuity of Griffith-style cutting  disjunctive editing  a variety of alternative editing practices that call attention to the cut through spatial tension, temporal jumps, or rhythmic or graphic pattern so as to affect viscerally, disorient, or intellectually engage the viewer; also called visible editing  intellectual montage  several montages shown one after the other that imply a meaning and a metaphor  overlapping editing  an edited sequence that presents two shots of the same action; because this technique violates continuity, it is rarely used  axis of action  an imaginary line bisecting a scene corresponding to the 180-degree rule in continuity editing  180 degree rule  basic guideline regarding the on-screen spatial relationship between a character and another character or object within a scene; an imaginary line called the axis connects the characters and by keeping the camera on one side of this axis for every shot in the scene, the first character will always be framed right of the second character, who is then always framed left of the first; if the camera passes over the axis, it is called jumping the line or crossing the line  shot/reverse shot  an editing pattern that begins with a shot of one character taken from an angle at one end of the axis of action, follows with a shot of the second character from the “reverse” angle at the other end of the line, and continues back and forth through the sequence; often used in conversations  crosscutting (parallel editing)  editing technique that cuts back and forth between actions in separate spaces, implying simultaneity  point-of-view (POV) shots  a subjective shot that reproduces a character‟s optical point of view, often preceded and/or followed by shots of the character looking  match cuts  cut in film editing between either two different objects, two different spaces, or two different compositions in which an object in the two shots graphically match, often helping to establish a strong continuity of action and linking the two shots metaphorically  match on action  a cut between two shots featuring a similar visual action, such as when a shot in which a character opening a door cuts to a shot depicting the continuation of th
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