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Final Exam Notes.docx

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A Maurice

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 film stock  unexposed film consisting of a flexible backing or base and a light-sensitive emulsion  video  electronic medium that captures, records, stores, displays, and transmits moving images  persistence of vision  the eye’s retention of a visual imprint for approximately one-fifth to one-twentieth of a second after the object has disappeared; as a result, the continuous projection of a series of still images at a rate of 16 or more frames per second will give the illusion of movement  frame rate  frequency (rate) at which an imaging device produces unique consecutive images called frames  color timing  process of altering and enhancing the color of a motion picture, video image, or still image either electronically, photo-chemically or digitally  filters  transparent sheets of glass or gels placed in front of the lens to create various effects  image processing  any form of signal processing for which the input is an image and the output is either an image or a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image  film speed (speed of motion)  the rate at which moving images are recorded and later projected, standardized for 35mm sound film at 24 frames per second (fps); also, a measure of film stock’s sensitivity to light  jump cuts  an edit that interrupts a particular action and intentionally or unintentionally creates discontinuities in the spatial or temporal development of shots  elliptical editing  makes screen time shorter than story time by cutting out unnecessary actions; condenses time by inferring total actions we only see in part  cross-cutting (or parallel editing)  an editing technique that cuts back and forth between actions in separate spaces, often implying simultaneity  hand-held camera  a lightweight camera (such as the 16mm Arriflex) that can be carried by the operator rather than mounted on a tripod; such cameras, widely used during WWII, allowed cinematography to become more mobile and fostered the advent of on- location shooting  steadicam  a camera stabilization system introduced in 1976 that allows a camera operator to film a continuous and steady shot without losing the freedom of movement afforded by the handheld camera  motion control  a technique used in still and motion photography that enables precise control of, and optionally also allows repetition of, camera movements  zoom lens  a lens with variable focal length  experimental film  films that explore film form and subject matters in new and unconventional ways, ranging from abstract image and sound patterns to dreamlike worlds  imaginative practices  metaphoric forms link different objects, images, events, or individuals in order to produce a new perception, emotion, or idea  animation  a process that traditionally refers to moving images drawn or painted on individual cels or to manipulated three- dimensional objects, which are then photographed onto single frames of film; animation now encompasses digital imaging techniques  cel animation  traditional animation techniques that uses a series of drawings on pieces of celluloid  stop-motion animation  used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement  claymation  a process that uses stop-motion photography with clay figures to create the illusion of movement  computer animation (2D and 3D)  process used for generating animated images by using computer graphics  cut-out animation  uses cut out pieces of paper or material  CGI (computer-generated imagery) still or animated images created through digital computer technology; first introduced in the 1970s, CGI was used to create feature-length films by the mid-1990s and is widely used for visual effects  motion capture  process of recording the movement of objects or people  modes of production  the way in which movies are produced  studio system  the industrial practices of the large production (and, until 1948, distribution) companies responsible for the kinds and quality of movies made in Hollywood or other film industries; during the Hollywood studio era extending from the late 1920s to the 1950s, the five major studies were MGM, Paramount, RKO, Twentieth Century Fox, and Warner Bros  independent cinema  a term used to describe films made outside the traditional studio system or made by independent producers  documentary  a non-fiction film that presents real objects, people, and events  distribution  the means through which movies are delivered to theatres, video stores, television and Internet networks, and other venues that make them available to consumers, or to educational and cultural institutions  wide release  the premiere of a movie at many locations simultaneously, sometimes on as many as 1 500 to 2 000 screens nationally  limited release  the practice of initially distributing a film only to major cities and expanding distribution according to its success or failure  exhibition  the part of the film industry that shows films to a paying public, usually in movie theatres  promotion  the aspect of the movie industry through which audiences are exposed to and encouraged to see a particular film; promotion includes advertisements, trailers, publicity appearances, and product tie-ins  extra-textual materials  all of the things that create the memories related to a film  production code  the set of industrial moral censorship guidelines that governed the production of most US motion pictu
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