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ENGC16H3F Exam Job Job was a wealthy man with seven sons and three daughters. He had the greatest faith but Satan told God that he was only reverent because God had blessed him. To prove him wrong, God killed all of Job's children and destroyed his wealth. Job ripped off his clothing and worshiped God. Satan told God that Job was still loyal because he had not suffered any actual pain. God smote Job with boils and his wife told him to curse God and ask to die. Job refused. His friends came to mourn with him. He opened his mouth to curse himself and lamented. He asked why his life was so miserable. Eliphaz suggested that God was less just than Men and said that He is cruel. He reaffirmed Job's faith, however. Job lamented more over his pain and the wretched spectacle of his torture: "Oh that I might have my request; and that God would grant me the thing that I long for! Even that it would please God to destroy me; that he would let loose his hand, and cut me off! Then should I yet have comfort; yea, I would harden myself in sorrow: let him not spare; for I have not concealed the words of the Holy One. What is my strength, that I should hope? and what is mine end, that I should prolong my life?" Job, 6:8-11 He begged God for forgiveness and asked how long men must live on earth. He believed that he sinned and should no longer live. Bildad told him to ask God for help and promised him that God was good. Job was weary of life and wondered if his suffering could be considered good. Zophar said that his words must be answered. He asked if men can ever find God and promised that his misery would be taken away. Job told him that he also had wisdom. He said that all good and evil was created by God. He said that he was not inferior to them but had suffered grievously. He alleged that man is always unclean and his life is brief. Eliphaz said that it was no good to speak in this way and asked Job if God could be a consolation in any way. He told Job that his words were in vain. Bildad asked if he would stop speaking in this way. He told Job that good will overcome evil and that evil is not loved by God. Job asked why they continued to reproach him and explained that he has been overthrown by God. Zophar told him that the triumph of evil may be great but the glory of God is everlasting. Job explained that he was not complaining against God but believed that evil would endure. Eliphar told him that man's righteousness cannot be profitable to God and that God probably could not see everything. Job explained that wicked and good alike rose and fell and the work of men perished like ears of corn. Bildad asserted that God's power was endless. Job wished to be in his youth or months past when he was blessed. He told them that others mock him because God has abandoned him. He told them that he will not abandon his righteous thoughts and has nothing to confess. Everyone fell silent. Elihu, who had been listening, was enraged because Job has not justified God. He said that old men are not always wise. He asked why Job strives against God. He told him that only those who don't strive against God are blessed. He asserted that Job spoke without true knowledge. He explained that he should fear God. He explained that no one could know the mind of God. Job asserted that he knew that God was omnipotent. He has humbled himself. God spoke and said He was angry against Eliphaz and the others for being unrighteous. Job loved God and worshiped Him without question. He accepted Job and gave him his children and multiplied his former wealth. Contract The book of Job is one of the most troubling books in the bible. Job has honored his covenant with God to the furthest extent but because of Satan's challenge God tortures him. God destroyed all of Sodom and Gomorrah but saved Lot because he was righteous. The treatment of Job disrupts the divine balance of the covenant. Although men have broken the covenant on multiple occasions, this is the first time God breaks it completely. The Book of Job addresses the question "why do bad things happen to good people?" with only a spiritual answer. Women Women are only briefly present in the book of Job but their absence is important. The only action taken by a woman in this book is by Job's wife. She tells him to curse God and stop living when he has lost everything. Not only does she not share in Job's immeasurable faith, she also does not comfort him or speak with him in the way his male friends do. Palms The Psalms are a collection of spiritual poetry on virtually every subject, and as such are difficult to summarize. They are a tremendous body of work signifying a poetic dialogue between man and God. Proverbs Like the Psalms, Proverbs are too specific to summarize. They represent a body of sayings directed at everything from death to government to farming. The tenor of the entire section is one of contextualized faith and day-to-day living. Ruth A man of Judah, Elimelech went to Moab with his wife Naomi. Their sons married women out of the Moabites. One of these women was named Ruth. When their husbands died, Naomi told them to return to their fathers' houses. Ruth would not go home and traveled with Naomi to Bethlehem. Elimelech's kin, Boaz told her that she could stay with his maidens because she seemed virtuous. She worked in the fields and kept a part of the harvest. At Naomi's advice, she approached Boaz while he was drunk after the threshing. He gave her six measures of barely. Boaz told the council that he bought all that was Elimelech's from Naomi and intended to marry Ruth. Ruth bore a child who would be the grandfather of David. Women Originally, Israelites were commanded not to take wives from foreign tribes. When Naomi and her family move into Moab, her sons take foreign wives. Ruth, with the death of her husband, returns to Bethlehem and toils with the other women there. Boaz finds her acceptable and takes her as his wife. Her line bears the second king of Israel. Esther In the days of Ahasuerus a ruler of Persia, there were extravagant feasts but the queen would not come at the king's bidding. He decided to give her royal place to someone more worthy. He sent proclamations all over his empire searching for a virgin. Mordecai, a Jew in his service, headed this search. The keeper of women thought that Mordecai's daughter, Esther, would be a good match. The king found her modest and beautiful and chose her. Mordecai told her to hide her heritage. Mordecai did not bow to Haman, a prince of Persia, and Haman asked if he may kill Jews to punish their irreverence. Mordecai wept over this and Esther also grieved. She wanted to go to the king but she was only allowed to go when called. She told her father that she would fast and that he should have all the other Jews fast also. On the third day she went to the king and asked to be present at a banquet with him and Haman. Haman was planning to have Mordecai killed. The king heard of Mordecai's coming death and remembered that Mordecai made him aware of a plot on his life. He told Haman to dress Mordecai in royal clothing. Haman was hung on the gallows prepared for Mordecai. Ahasuerus gave the money of Haman's house to Esther and she passed this on to Mordecai. She asked the king to undo the evil begun by Haman and the king decreed that the Jews were to turn and massacre their assailants. Mordecai went out to be the enforcer of this law. The governors of the provinces supported him out of fear. Mordecai told others that the date of Haman's death and Esther's feast was to be always kept. This day is called Purim. Mordecai became great in Ahasuerus' kingdom. Violence This is the first example of large-scale ethnic violence done against the Jews by a ruling government. One man who felt that Mordecai slighted his honor began this violence. While the Israelites had waged such warfare against people under their power before when they cleansed the land of people following Baal, this is the first time they suffer the same violence. Their captivity in Babylon began many years of suffering for the Israelites. Women The story of Esther presents two sides of the treatment of women. The first queen is deposed because she would not behave as the king wished. Esther is chosen as the new queen because she exhibits certain qualities that the king values. She used this position to get justice for her people when they are hunted. When the king gives her all the money from Haman's house, she gives it all to her father. Ecclesiastes This book is allegedly from a speech or sermon by a son of David. It is like a long psalm with its' main theme centering around understanding the nature of the world and the relationship between man and God. A famous quote from Ecclesiastes: "To everything there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven: A time to be born, and a time to die; a time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted; A time to kill, and a time to heal; a time to break down, and a time to build up....A time to love, and a time to hate; a time of war, and a time of peace....every man should eat and drink, and enjoy the good of all his labour, it is the gift of God." Ecclesiastes, 3:1-3, 8, 13 Song of Solomon (Song of Songs) The Song of Solomon is a collection of ancient love poetry. There are few outright praises of God. It is more a celebration of love. There are strong sexual overtones. It is a text of immense beauty and lasting relevance. Lamentations Jeremiah lamented about all the sins of the people of Israel. He referred to Jerusalem as a filthy woman. He lamented that the Lord was made an enemy to his people. He said He saw all of the sins and was incapable of not weeping or lamenting. He cried out the plight of the people of Jerusalem and asked God to remember their suffering. He asked if God would always forgive them. Women Increasingly, in the prophetic works, women become the comparative part of metaphor and simile Israel has been a harlot, she is like a women who has been treacherous to her husband. In the words of the prophets, Israel's covenant is like a marriage agreement. By worshiping other gods, the people have engaged in congress outside of the marriage. In Jeremiah's Lamentations, the women is not even married, she is just filthy. Quotes Job -Two speeches about God and Job’s submission (38:1-42:6) -Story about Job restoration (42:7-17): 7 And it was so, that after the LORD had spoken these words unto Job, the LORD said to Eliphaz the Temanite, My wrath is kindled against thee, and against thy two friends: for ye have not spoken of me the thing that is right, as my servant Job hath. 8Therefore take unto you now seven bullocks and seven rams, and go to my servant Job, and offer up for yourselves a burnt offering; and my servant Job shall pray for you: for him will I accept: lest I deal with you after your folly, in that ye have not spoken of me the thing which is right, like my servant Job. 9 So Eliphaz the Temanite and Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite went, and did according as the LORD commanded them: the LORD also accepted Job. 10 And the LORD turned the captivity of Job, when he prayed for his friends: also the LORD gave Job twice as much as he had before. 11 Then came there unto him all his brethren, and all his sisters, and all they that had been of his acquaintance before, and did eat bread with him in his house: and they bemoaned him, and comforted him over all the evil that the LORD had brought upon him: every man also gave him a piece of money, and every one an earring of gold. 12 So the LORD blessed the latter end of Job more than his beginning: for he had fourteen thousand sheep, and six thousand camels, and a thousand yoke of oxen, and a thousand she asses. 13He had also seven sons and three daughters. 14And he called the name of the first, Jemima; and the name of the second, Kezia; and the name of the third, Kerenhappuch. 15 And in all the land were no women found so fair as the daughters of Job: and their father gave them inheritance among their brethren. 16 After this lived Job an hundred and forty years, and saw his sons, and his sons' sons, even four generations. 17 So Job died, being old and full of days. -Job unambiguously portrayed as “perfect and upright” and “one that fear God, and eschewed evil” (1:1): 1 There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job; and that man was perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed evil. -Job’s habitual burn offering on behalf of his children (1:5): 5 And it was so, when the days of their feasting were gone about, that Job sent and sanctified them, and rose up early in the morning, and offered burnt offerings according to the number of them all: for Job said, It may be that my sons have sinned, and cursed God in their hearts. Thus did Job continually. -God’s exchange with Satan (1:6-12): 6 Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them. 7 And the LORD said unto Satan, Whence comest thou? Then Satan answered the LORD, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it. 8 And the LORD said unto Satan, Hast thou considered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth evil? 9 Then Satan answered the LORD, and said, Doth Job fear God for nought? 10 Hast not thou made an hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath on every side? thou hast blessed the work of his hands, and his substance is increased in the land. 11But put forth thine hand now, and touch all that he hath, and he will curse thee to thy face. 12And the LORD said unto Satan, Behold, all that he hath is in thy power; only upon himself put not forth thine hand. So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD. -All Job’s earthly possessions destroyed and his children killed (1:20-22): 14 And there came a messenger unto Job, and said, The oxen were plowing, and the asses feeding beside them: 15And the Sabeans fell upon them, and took them away; yea, they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee. 16While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said, The fire of God is fallen from heaven, and hath burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee. 17 While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said, The Chaldeans made out three bands, and fell upon the camels, and have carried them away, yea, and slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee. 18 While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said, Thy sons and thy daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house: 19 And, behold, there came a great wind from the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men, and they are dead; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee. -Job’s response (1:20-22): 20Then Job arose, and rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worshipped, 21And said, Naked came I out of my mother's womb, and naked shall I return thither: the LORD gave, and the LORD hath taken away; blessed be the name of the LORD. 22 In all this Job sinned not, nor charged God foolishly. -God’s second exchange with Satan (2:2-6): 2 And the LORD said unto Satan, From whence comest thou? And Satan answered the LORD, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it. 3 And the LORD said unto Satan, Hast thou considered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth evil? and still he holdeth fast his integrity, although thou movedst me against him, to destroy him without cause. 4 And Satan answered the LORD, and said, Skin for skin, yea, all that a man hath will he give for his life. 5 But put forth thine hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh, and he will curse thee to thy face. 6 And the LORD said unto Satan, Behold, he is in thine hand; but save his life. -Job’s response to being afflicted with boils (2:8-10): 8 And he took him a potsherd to scrape himself withal; and he sat down among the ashes. 9 Then said his wife unto him, Dost thou still retain thine integrity? curse God, and die. 10But he said unto her, Thou speakest as one of the foolish women speaketh. What? shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil? In all this did not Job sin with his lips. Cycle 1 and Quotes -Job’s Lament: Curses the day of his birth and the night of his conception; note the language of un-creation (3:4-10): 4 Let that day be darkness; let not God regard it from above, neither let the light shine upon it. 5 Let darkness and the shadow of death stain it; let a cloud dwell upon it; let the blackness of the day terrify it. 6 As for that night, let darkness seize upon it; let it not be joined unto the days of the year, let it not come into the number of the months. 7 Lo, let that night be solitary, let no joyful voice come therein. 8 Let them curse it that curse the day, who are ready to raise up their mourning. 9 Let the stars of the twilight thereof be dark; let it look for light, but have none; neither let it see the dawning of the day: 10 Because it shut not up the doors of my mother's womb, nor hid sorrow from mine eyes. -Job questions the point of living a miserable life (3:20-22): 20 Wherefore is light given to him that is in misery, and life unto the bitter in soul; 21 Which long for death, but it cometh not; and dig for it more than for hid treasures; 22 Which rejoice exceedingly, and are glad, when they can find the grave? -Eliphaz’s response that the innocent is never wrongly punished (4:7-8): 7 Remember, I pray thee, who ever perished, being innocent? or where were the righteous cut off? 8 Even as I have seen, they that plow iniquity, and sow wickedness, reap the same. -Eliphaz declares that morals all have failing (4:17-21): 17 Shall mortal man be more just than God? shall a man be more pure than his maker? 18 Behold, he put no trust in his servants; and his angels he charged with folly: 19 How much less in them that dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the dust, which are crushed before the moth? 20They are destroyed from morning to evening: they perish for ever without any regarding it. 21 Doth not their excellency which is in them go away? they die, even without wisdom. -Eliphaz asserts that wickedness is always punished (5:2-7; 5:12-14): 2 For wrath killeth the foolish man, and envy slayeth the silly one. 3 I have seen the foolish taking root: but suddenly I cursed his habitation. 4 His children are far from safety, and they are crushed in the gate, neither is there any to deliver them. 5 Whose harvest the hungry eateth up, and taketh it even out of the thorns, and the robber swalloweth up their substance. 6 Although affliction cometh not forth of the dust, neither doth trouble spring out of the ground; 7 Yet man is born unto trouble, as the sparks fly upward. 12 He disappointeth the devices of the crafty, so that their hands cannot perform their enterprise. 13He taketh the wise in their own craftiness: and the counsel of the froward is carried headlong. 14They meet with darkness in the daytime, and grope in the noonday as in the night. 15 But he saveth the poor from the sword, from their mouth, and from the hand of the mighty. 16So the poor hath hope, and iniquity stoppeth her mouth. 17Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: -Job expresses disappointment in Eliphaz’s approach to his problem (6:14-17; 6:21-24): 14To him that is afflicted pity should be shewed from his friend; but he forsaketh the fear of the Almighty. 15My brethren have dealt deceitfully as a brook, and as the stream of brooks they pass away; 16 Which are blackish by reason of the ice, and wherein the snow is hid: 17 What time they wax warm, they vanish: when it is hot, they are consumed out of their place. 21For now ye are nothing; ye see my casting down, and are afraid. 22 Did I say, Bring unto me? or, Give a reward for me of your substance? 23 Or, Deliver me from the enemy's hand? or, Redeem me from the hand of the mighty? 24 Teach me, and I will hold my tongue: and cause me to understand wherein I have erred. -Job wants to know why he is being “tired” (7:17-21): 17 What is man, that thou shouldest magnify him? and that thou shouldest set thine heart upon him? 18 And that thou shouldest visit him every morning, and try him every moment? 19 How long wilt thou not depart from me, nor let me alone till I swallow down my spittle? 20I have sinned; what shall I do unto thee, O thou preserver of men? why hast thou set me as a mark against thee, so that I am a burden to myself? 21 And why dost thou not pardon my transgression, and take away mine iniquity? for now shall I sleep in the dust; and thou shalt seek me in the morning, but I shall not be. -Bidad’s response emphasizes that God is invariably just (8:3; 8:6; 8:20): 3 Doth God pervert judgment? or doth the Almighty pervert justice? 6 If thou wert pure and upright; surely now he would awake for thee, and make the habitation of thy righteousness prosperous. 20 Behold, God will not cast away a perfect man, neither will he help the evil doers: -Job observes that man is no match for God (9:2-12): 2 I know it is so of a truth: but how should man be just with God? 3 If he will contend with him, he cannot answer him one of a thousand. 4 He is wise in heart, and mighty in strength: who hath hardened himself against him, and hath prospered? 5 Which removeth the mountains, and they know not: which overturneth them in his anger. 6 Which shaketh the earth out of her place, and the pillars thereof tremble. 7 Which commandeth the sun, and it riseth not; and sealeth up the stars. 8 Which alone spreadeth out the heavens, and treadeth upon the waves of the sea. 9 Which maketh Arcturus, Orion, and Pleiades, and the chambers of the south. 10 Which doeth great things past finding out; yea, and wonders without number. 11 Lo, he goeth by me, and I see him not: he passeth on also, but I perceive him not. 12 Behold, he taketh away, who can hinder him? who will say unto him, What doest thou? -Job declares that he has lost faith in a just God (9:20-35): 20 If I justify myself, mine own mouth shall condemn me: if I say, I am perfect, it shall also prove me perverse. 21 Though I were perfect, yet would I not know my soul: I would despise my life. 22 This is one thing, therefore I said it, He destroyeth the perfect and the wicked. 23 If the scourge slay suddenly, he will laugh at the trial of the innocent. 24 The earth is given into the hand of the wicked: he covereth the faces of the judges thereof; if not, where, and who is he? 25 Now my days are swifter than a post: they flee away, they see no good. 26 They are passed away as the swift ships: as the eagle that hasteth to the prey. 27 If I say, I will forget my complaint, I will leave off my heaviness, and comfort myself: 28 I am afraid of all my sorrows, I know that thou wilt not hold me innocent. 29 If I be wicked, why then labour I in vain? 30 If I wash myself with snow water, and make my hands never so clean; 31 Yet shalt thou plunge me in the ditch, and mine own clothes shall abhor me. 32 For he is not a man, as I am, that I should answer him, and we should come together in judgment. 33 Neither is there any daysman betwixt us, that might lay his hand upon us both. 34 Let him take his rod away from me, and let not his fear terrify me: 35 Then would I speak, and not fear him; but it is not so with me. -Job wants an explanation from God (10:2-7; 10:14-15): 2 I will say unto God, Do not condemn me; shew me wherefore thou contendest with me. 3 Is it good unto thee that thou shouldest oppress, that thou shouldest despise the work of thine hands, and shine upon the counsel of the wicked? 4 Hast thou eyes of flesh? or seest thou as man seeth? 5 Are thy days as the days of man? are thy years as man's days, 6 That thou enquirest after mine iniquity, and searchest after my sin? 7 Thou knowest that I am not wicked; and there is none that can deliver out of thine hand. 14 If I sin, then thou markest me, and thou wilt not acquit me from mine iniquity. 15 If I be wicked, woe unto me; and if I be righteous, yet will I not lift up my head. I am full of confusion; therefore see thou mine affliction; -Zophar’s response accuses Job of lying (11:2-6): 2 Should not the multitude of words be answered? and should a man full of talk be justified? 3 Should thy lies make men hold their peace? and when thou mockest, shall no man make thee ashamed? 4 For thou hast said, My doctrine is pure, and I am clean in thine eyes. 5 But oh that God would speak, and open his lips against thee; 6 And that he would shew thee the secrets of wisdom, that they are double to that which is! Know therefore that God exacteth of thee less than thine iniquity deserveth. -Zophar reiterates that the wicked will not escape (11:20): 20 But the eyes of the wicked shall fail, and they shall not escape, and their hope shall be as the giving up of the ghost. Cycle 2 and Quotes -Job acknowledges that God has power over everything (12:9-10): 9 Who knoweth not in all these that the hand of the LORD hath wrought this? 10In whose hand is the soul of every living thing, and the breath of all mankind. -Job accuses friends of “speaking wickedly for God” (13:3-8): 3 Surely I would speak to the Almighty, and I desire to reason with God. 4 But ye are forgers of lies, ye are all physicians of no value. 5 O that ye would altogether hold your peace! and it should be your wisdom. 6 Hear now my reasoning, and hearken to the pleadings of my lips. 7 Will ye speak wickedly for God? and talk deceitfully for him? 8 Will ye accept his person? will ye contend for God? -Job insists that he will “maintain [his] own ways before [God]” (13:13-16): 13 Hold your peace, let me alone, that I may speak, and let come on me what will. 14 Wherefore do I take my flesh in my teeth, and put my life in mine hand? 15 Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him: but I will maintain mine own ways before him. 16 He also shall be my salvation: for an hypocrite shall not come before him. -Job wants to know what is transgression is (13:23-24; 14:16-17): 23 How many are mine iniquities and sins? make me to know my transgression and my sin. 24 Wherefore hidest thou thy face, and holdest me for thine enemy? 16 For now thou numberest my steps: dost thou not watch over my sin? 17 My transgression is sealed up in a bag, and thou sewest up mine iniquity. -Job reflects upon the seeming futility of life (14:1-6): 1 Man that is born of a woman is of few days, and full of trouble. 2 He cometh forth like a flower, and is cut down: he fleeth also as a shadow, and continueth not. 3 And dost thou open thine eyes upon such an one, and bringest me into judgment with thee? 4 Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? not one. 5 Seeing his days are determined, the number of his months are with thee, thou hast appointed his bounds that he cannot pass; 6 Turn from him, that he may rest, till he shall accomplish, as an hireling, his day. -Eliphaz’s response accuses Job of impious speech (15:5-8): 5 For thy mouth uttereth thine iniquity, and thou choosest the tongue of the crafty. 6 Thine own mouth condemneth thee, and not I: yea, thine own lips testify against thee. 7 Art thou the first man that was born? or wast thou made before the hills? 8 Hast thou heard the secret of God? and dost thou restrain wisdom to thyself? -Eliphaz suggests that no man is pure (15:14): 14 What is man, that he should be clean? and he which is born of a woman, that he should be righteous? -Eliphaz reiterates (yet again) that the wicked will suffer (15:20): 20The wicked man travaileth with pain all his days, and the number of years is hidden to the oppressor. Cycle 3 and Quotes -Job- God allows my suffering, even though I am (and he knows that I am innocent) (16:11-20): 11God hath delivered me to the ungodly, and turned me over into the hands of the wicked. 12 I was at ease, but he hath broken me asunder: he hath also taken me by my neck, and shaken me to pieces, and set me up for his mark. 13 His archers compass me round about, he cleaveth my reins asunder, and doth not spare; he poureth out my gall upon the ground. 14He breaketh me with breach upon breach, he runneth upon me like a giant. 15I have sewed sackcloth upon my skin, and defiled my horn in the dust. 16 My face is foul with weeping, and on my eyelids is the shadow of death; 17 Not for any injustice in mine hands: also my prayer is pure. 18 O earth, cover not thou my blood, and let my cry have no place. 19 Also now, behold, my witness is in heaven, and my record is on high. 20 My friends scorn me: but mine eye poureth out tears unto God. -Job insists that his friends have no understanding (17:4-5; 17:10): 4 For thou hast hid their heart from understanding: therefore shalt thou not exalt them. 5 He that speaketh flattery to his friends, even the eyes of his children shall fail. 10 But as for you all, do ye return, and come now: for I cannot find one wise man among you. -Bildad’s response (18:3-4; 18:7-8): 3 Wherefore are we counted as beasts, and reputed vile in your sight? 4 He teareth himself in his anger: shall the earth be forsaken for thee? and shall the rock be removed out of his place? 7 The steps of his strength shall be straitened, and his own counsel shall cast him down. 8 For he is cast into a net by his own feet, and he walketh upon a snare. -Job objects to his friends’ assumption that he is guilty (19:3-4): 3 These ten times have ye reproached me: ye are not ashamed that ye make yourselves strange to me. 4 And be it indeed that I have erred, mine error remaineth with myself. -Job highlights his own isolation (19:13-19): 13He hath put my brethren far from me, and mine acquaintance are verily estranged from me. 14 My kinsfolk have failed, and my familiar friends have forgotten me. 15 They that dwell in mine house, and my maids, count me for a stranger: I am an alien in their sight. 16I called my servant, and he gave me no answer; I intreated him with my mouth. 17 My breath is strange to my wife, though I intreated for the children's sake of mine own body. 18Yea, young children despised me; I arose, and they spake against me. 19All my inward friends abhorred me: and they whom I loved are turned against me. -Zophar’s response (20:4-5) 4 Knowest thou not this of old, since man was placed upon earth, 5 That the triumphing of the wicked is short, and the joy of the hypocrite but for a moment? -Eliphaz’s accusation (22:2-11) and recommended action (22:22-25): 2 Can a man be profitable unto God, as he that is wise may be profitable unto himself? 3 Is it any pleasure to the Almighty, that thou art righteous? or is it gain to him, that thou makest thy ways perfect? 4 Will he reprove thee for fear of thee? will he enter with thee into judgment? 5 Is not thy wickedness great? and thine iniquities infinite? 6 For thou hast taken a pledge from thy brother for nought, and stripped the naked of their clothing. 7 Thou hast not given water to the weary to drink, and thou hast withholden bread from the hungry. 8 But as for the mighty man, he had the earth; and the honourable man dwelt in it. 9 Thou hast sent widows away empty, and the arms of the fatherless have been broken. 10 Therefore snares are round about thee, and sudden fear troubleth thee; 11 Or darkness, that thou canst not see; and abundance of waters cover thee. 22Receive, I pray thee, the law from his mouth, and lay up his words in thine heart. 23If thou return to the Almighty, thou shalt be built up, thou shalt put away iniquity far from thy tabernacles. 24Then shalt thou lay up gold as dust, and the gold of Ophir as the stones of the brooks. 25Yea, the Almighty shall be thy defence, and thou shalt have plenty of silver. Psalms Psalms of wisdom, instruction or mediation 1)-Psalms 1, "Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly..." 2)-Psalms 112, "Praise ye the Lord..." 3)-Psalms 73, "Truly God is god to Israel..." 4)-Clarification of key concepts: a)-Enemies b)-The poor c)-Life after death: Sheol 2-The language in this passage is more explanation rather than religious. A good man is define as someone who thinks one with the God by obeying him. The first 9 verses is positive depiction of what is a righteous man. (4a) also) The verse 8 "enemies" is referred here as ppl who don't believe in God. The enemies can also be witches who call the evil unto the sufferer. (4b) also) Verse 9 righteous man described as someone who has given to the poor. It is nt only material poor it is actually about between poverty and pious. 3)- (4c) also) from verse two and on the main thing that is focused on is the wicked but particularly the prosper. He says that he almost fell away from the path of righteousness bc of the wicked. verse 14 the speaker wants to speak out but is afraid that if he were to do that was to offend the chosen children. Verse 16 when he thinks of speaking out loud he fells pain for the outcome to destruct the children. Verse 17 the visit of the God house it brings him realization of what he was thinking. Even though he did not understand he still followed the way of God. Verse 24-25 He talks about Sheol which means a place where ppl are awaiting there judgment after death basically the warehouse of the death. Psalms of Lamentation (individual) 1)-Psalms 6: "O Lord, rebuke me not in thine anger..." 2)-Psalms 38: "O Lord, rebuke me not in thy wrath..." 3)-Psalms 42" "As the hart pantheth after the water brooks, so pantheth my soul after thee..." 4)-Psalms 51: "Have mercy upon me, O God, according to thy lovingkindness..." 5)-Other psalms of lamentation: 3;13;22;25;26;39;63;69;71;74;102;120;130;140;141;143 1-There is a sense of punishment in this passage n asking for forgiveness. 2-A physical distress is depicted here. So the speaker rather than portrayed himself suffer innocently he seems rather to accept he suffers for his sins. Just like Job this person is isolated in his sins. If u suffered that much u must have sinned. Just like Job's friends these ppl also view the speaker as a sinner that is why he gets punished. Just like Job this speaker stop talking to the ppl who believe that he committed sin. He claims later that he had follow the right path which is opposite to what he had said previously. 3-This is someone who expresses his loneliness. His enemies telling him where is ur God since he was in famine he would drink his own tears. U can see an inner struggle of his faith. The speaker fells the absence of God. 4-This song has a reference to Samuel book about David sleeping with Asheeba the wife of Uraith the solider. The speaker is saying that he has done evil in God sight and also adds that im doing such sin for U God to justify what u will do or say. He turns back to the image of how God can help him be clean. Psalm of Lamentation (communal) 1)-Psalm 44: "We have heard with our ears, O God..." 2)-Psalm 80: "Give ear, O Shepherd of Israel..." 3)-Psalm 106: "Praise ye The Lord..." 1)The reason for defeat is not bc of the strength of enemies but of the absence of God. The speaker try to get God to intervene saying we r ur ppl n do not fail us. Verse 21: They say u should know that already bc u r God. The speaker say that bc of God we r being killed that how far he goes in his statement. 2)Verse 3 repeats n this is an indication of refrain of a song that gets repeated. Verse 8: A metaphor that is used here is "Divine"? or "Vyne"? which stands for the Israelite, u see this from verse 8 to 11. 3)This is an opening of this Psalm seem a praise instead of lamentation but later changes to lamentation. The speaker saying that the group is at guilt? verse 13: This is interpretation that we have not seen before and elaborates it and links us to the past. The sentence is set up as if they have to pay for material things to move on from all this. Verse 26: The speaker continues to say all that suffering which mostly we have not seen before. Aside from the fact of long list of guilt, the interest fact is he speaker of the offenders as "them" instead of "we" which shows he distance himself but at verse 47 he the speaker switches to "we". What the Psalm highlights how difficult it is for someone to know that guilt can be pass down in generations. Its really hard to see the offends to be theirs or others. So the dins of their fathers continuing down to them. Selah (Sela) Exact meaning of the word unknown. Some guesses: -"Always, forever" like "Amen" -Indicates points for the congregation to fall in worship -Derived from the verb "to lift up" hence: -Lift up one's voice: "Sing louder" -Lift up one's eyes: "repeat the verse -Lift up the music: "Play louder (on the instruments)" Psalms Of Trust 1)-Often subsumed under psalms of lament 2)-Psalm 23: "The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want..." 3)-Pslam 125: "They that trust in The Lord shall be as mount Zion..." 4)-Psalm 131: "Lord my heart is not haughty, nor mine eyes lofty..." "Song of degrees": also "Song of ascents;" perhaps sung by pilgrims approaching Jerusalem or by priests ascending the steps of the Temple. 2)This is not a psalm that can be categorized as Lament bc the person has a lot of trust that God will look out for them or him. 3)The sentiment express here is straightforward that God will do good to those that are God but we have think that maybe that natural of God to do but why a song for it if it is evident. Psalms of Blessing and Cursing 1)-Psalm 109: "Hold not thy peace, O God of my praise" 2)-Psalm 137:"By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, we wept..." 1)Verse 2 and 3: Speaker complaint of wicked and deceit; They spoken a lying tongue. Verse 13 sums it up and wants the family to suffer and wiped out completely. Verse 21: he asks God what to do to him; He wants mercy to God to bestow on him to help him n give him everything. 2)The speaker invasion himself in Babylon being sick n harmed. The speaker questions how to sing old song in an strange land? The picture of exile. Intense expression of nostalgia. The speaker reminds God of destruction and tells God to "raise" it meaning to bring it down. The psalm ends with a curse to Babylon. Psalms of Praise 10-Psalm 8: "O Lord our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth!" 2)-Psalm 114: "when Israel went out of Egypt..." 3)-Psalm 139: "O Lord, thou hast searched me..." 4)-Other psalms of praise: 48;65;103 1)Praising God but in verse 2 is problematic bc nobody is sure to interpret it but common explanation is bc babies and suffering are powerless but the fact God makes them give voice and God gives strength. Its a way that saying God might is so great bc he gives those baby the voice to speak "God". The speaker expresses this feeling of "Awe" that God is setting him above other creature. He gies all the credit to God for creating human beings. 2)This psalm is sang by spirits. The speaker uses nature to express his admiration to God power. A vision of the natural world responding things that do not originally moves doesn't fact move. 3)The word "knowest or know" is repeated here in this psalm: It is clear that God knows everything. The focus is shifted to God is everywhere. Verse 8: the language is manner of translations of Christian of assumption about Heaven and Hell gets in the way. Verse 13: The speaker identifies he himself one of the reason that one can see that God is Marvelous. The speaker switches towards the end and describe his hatred to his enemies who are God's enemies. These enemies can be those who are against God. Because the psalm switches as thus the scholars things that it was of another psalm. And at the end u see the editor tries to change it a bit to make both switched points seem together. Enthronement Psalms 1)-Psalm 97: "The Lord reigneth; let the earth rejoice..." 1)This enthronement psalm is different than the rest bc it shows God as a King. And we see the word "reigneth" is a status here like God who is King of everything. And later in that psalm that God is The Lord of the whole earth. The speaker calls out in verse 7 and 9 to all gods that God is their God. This emphasis that all other gods are nothing compare to this ultimate God. The word "Saint" is not the meaning we know now but is of those who follow God. Royal Psalms 1)-Psalm 2: "Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing?" 2)-Psalm 45:" My heart is inditing a good matter..." 3)-Psalm 72: "Give the King thy judgments, O God..." 1)There is a threat here that of Kings. God reaction in hearing this is laughter. The voice of some voices till verse 5; this must be God speaking. verse 7: all of a sudden we switched over to King voice. The chosen King is by God when he is said to be God's son. Some cultures view a King is actually related to God as a descendent. But not in Israelite culture. 2)Royal wedding and it is divided into two parts. The person uses his tongue to write. Confection between the king and God. The relationship between husband and wife is not an equal relationship where u give and take. A lot of attention is focus on the way she is dressed. Looking into the future instead of the pass. The important thing here is the celebration of royalty. 3)A piece of writing from David's view point in voice. This is a prayer and very little personal about it and it concerns as a way to be a leader. A king is compare to rain that comes down in the ground. This is a desert culture so rain is very special symbolic meaning. Psalms of Thanksgiving 1)-Psalm 18: "I will love thee, O Lord, my strength..." 2)-Psalm 41: "Blessed is he that considereth the poor..." 3)-Psalm 116: "I love The Lord, because he hath heard my voice and my supplications." 4)-Psalm 124 (communal): "If Iit had not been The Lord who was on our side..." 5)-Other psalms of Thanksgiving 30;66;107;129 1)Here God appears in a physical form. God appears also as a warrior that can fly; sets out water, arrow from the sky. The rock imagine echoes the beginning of the plasm. The tense language makes it clear which means that it has already happened. 2)Opens with a general statement about how God works. After the opening we launch to the complaint. The speaker talks about how he sinned against God. 3)By verse 7 we climb out of disaster. The speaker is kept from crying and stapling. 4)The community is thinking in terms what would have happened if God was not there with us? Its a general thankfulness. Other Psalms 1)-Psalm 90: "Lord, thou hast been our dwelling place in all generations..." 1)This Psalm is different form the rest and it is dedicated to moses. The speaker expresses how God is great and before anything u were always God. That God always existed before everything and because he is infinite time means something different for Him than to us. Even if ppl are lucky and live a long life still these years r filled with labour and sorrow and soon will have to face death. As if life itself seems not a gift from God but an affliction to us and bc we have to suffer through it they ask to make it worth while. Proverbs 1)-Concerned primarily with partial, as opposed to speculative, wisdom a)-Mashal: "statement of truth" or "standard of appropriate behavior" 2)-Similar wisdom traditions exist in entire region between Mesopotamia and Egypt 3)-Composed and collected over several centuries (as early as the times of Solomon (?) or Hezekiah (late 8th to early 7th century BCE) a)-Chs. 10-31: pre-exilic period b)-Chs. 1-9: (probably) post-exilic; intended as extended introduction to the actual proverbs 4)Question of Solomonic authorship: "The proverbs of Solomon the son of David, King of Israel..." (1:1) a)-Other named authors: Agur (Ch.30); Lemuel (Ch.31) Outline of The Proverbs 1)-Didactic Discourses (1:1-9:18) 2)-First "Solomonic" Collection (10:1-22:16) a)-10:1-15:33: sayings predominantly in the form of antithetic parallelism b)-16:1-22:16: other verse forms 3)-Sayings of the wise (22:17-24:22) a)-22:17-29: introduction 17Bow down thine ear, and hear the words of the wise, and apply thine heart unto my knowledge. 18 For it is a pleasant thing if thou keep them within thee; they shall withal be fitted in thy lips. 19 That thy trust may be in the LORD, I have made known to thee this day, even to thee. 20 Have not I written to thee excellent things in counsels and knowledge, 21 That I might make thee know the certainty of the words of truth; that thou mightest answer the words of truth to them that send unto thee? 22 Rob not the poor, because he is poor: neither oppress the afflicted in the gate: 23 For the LORD will plead their cause, and spoil the soul of those that spoiled them. 24 Make no friendship with an angry man; and with a furious man thou shalt not go: 25 Lest thou learn his ways, and get a snare to thy soul. 26 Be not thou one of them that strike hands, or of them that are sureties for debts. 27 If thou hast nothing to pay, why should he take away thy bed from under thee? 28 Remove not the ancient landmark, which thy fathers have set. 29 Seest thou a man diligent in his business? he shall stand before kings; he shall not stand before mean men. 4)-Further sayings of the wise (24:23-34) 23 These things also belong to the wise. It is not good to have respect of persons in judgment. 24 He that saith unto the wicked, Thou art righteous; him shall the people curse, nations shall abhor him: 25 But to them that rebuke him shall be delight, and a good blessing shall come upon them. 26 Every man shall kiss his lips that giveth a right answer. 27 Prepare thy work without, and make it fit for thyself in the field; and afterwards build thine house. 28 Be not a witness against thy neighbour without cause; and deceive not with thy lips. 29 Say not, I will do so to him as he hath done to me: I will render to the man according to his work. 30 I went by the field of the slothful, and by the vineyard of the man void of understanding; 31 And, lo, it was all grown over with thorns, and nettles had covered the face thereof, and the stone wall thereof was broken down. 32 Then I saw, and considered it well: I looked upon it, and received instruction. 33 Yet a little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding of the hands to sleep: 34 So shall thy poverty come as one that travelleth; and thy want as an armed man. 5)-Second "Solomonic" Collection (25:1-29:27) a)-25-27: rich in similes b)-28-29: many antithetic parallelisms 6)-Sayings of Agur (30:1-33) 7)-Words of Lemuel (31:1-9) 1 The words of king Lemuel, the prophecy that his mother taught him. 2 What, my son? and what, the son of my womb? and what, the son of my vows? 3 Give not thy strength unto women, nor thy ways to that which destroyeth kings. 4 It is not for kings, O Lemuel, it is not for kings to drink wine; nor for princes strong drink: 5 Lest they drink, and forget the law, and pervert the judgment of any of the afflicted. 6 Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish, and wine unto those that be of heavy hearts. 7 Let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more. 8 Open thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all such as are appointed to destruction. 9 Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and needy. 8)-The good wife (31:10-31) 10 Who can find a virtuous woman? for her price is far above rubies. 11 The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, so that he shall have no need of spoil. 12 She will do him good and not evil all the days of her life. 13 She seeketh wool, and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands. 14 She is like the merchants' ships; she bringeth her food from afar. 15 She riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth meat to her household, and a portion to her maidens. 16 She considereth a field, and buyeth it: with the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard. 17 She girdeth her loins with strength, and strengtheneth her arms. 18 She perceiveth that her merchandise is good: her candle goeth not out by night. 19 She layeth her hands to the spindle, and her hands hold the distaff. 20 She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy. 21 She is not afraid of the snow for her household: for all her household are clothed with scarlet. 22 She maketh herself coverings of tapestry; her clothing is silk and purple. 23 Her husband is known in the gates, when he sitteth among the elders of the land. 24 She maketh fine linen, and selleth it; and delivereth girdles unto the merchant. 25 Strength and honour are her clothing; and she shall rejoice in time to come. 26 She openeth her mouth with wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of kindness. 27 She looketh well to the ways of her household, and eateth not the bread of idleness. 28 Her children arise up, and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praiseth her. 29 Many daughters have done virtuously, but thou excellest them all. 30 Favour is deceitful, and beauty is vain: but a woman that feareth the LORD, she shall be praised. 31 Give her of the fruit of her hands; and let her own works praise her in the gates. Didactic Discourses, or, Reflections on wisdom 1)-Wisdom/ Understanding (opposites: simpleness)/ Foolishness a)-"To know wisdom and instruction; to perceive the words of understanding..." (1:2ff) b)-"For the turning away of the simple shall slay them, and the prosperity of fools shall destroy them." (1:32) c)-"O ye simple, understand wisdom : and, ye fools, be ye of an understanding heart." (8:5) 2)-Wisdom as an allegorical figure a)-First speech: 1:20-32 20Wisdom crieth without; she uttereth her voice in the streets: 21She crieth in the chief place of concourse, in the openings of the gates: in the city she uttereth her words, saying, 22 How long, ye simple ones, will ye love simplicity? and the scorners delight in their scorning, and fools hate knowledge? 23 Turn you at my reproof: behold, I will pour out my spirit unto you, I will make known my words unto you. 24Because I have called, and ye refused; I have stretched out my hand, and no man regarded; 25But ye have set at nought all my counsel, and would none of my reproof: 26I also will laugh at your calamity; I will mock when your fear cometh; 27When your fear cometh as desolation, and your destruction cometh as a whirlwind; when distress and anguish cometh upon you. 28 Then shall they call upon me, but I will not answer; they shall seek me early, but they shall not find me: 29For that they hated knowledge, and did not choose the fear of the LORD: 30They would none of my counsel: they despised all my reproof. 31Therefore shall they eat of the fruit of their own way, and be filled with their own devices. 32For the turning away of the simple shall slay them, and the prosperity of fools shall destroy them. b)-Second speech: 8:1-36 c)-The banquets of wisdom and folly (9:1-18) 1a)There is away to get wisdom is by obeying God. 1b)There is a strong parallel between simple and fool. 2) Wisdom is described as a woman. 2a)Here is almost like a kind of trying to convert those who are simple and foolish into something good so she goes into the street to get ppl to follow her. Wisdom describe how ppl ignore her and this according to her is why she will lack bc how they mock her. Anguish will over power them just like how God would punish them. 2b)Wisdom is present at God creat
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