Plato guide

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04:47 Platos concern in regards to poetry (any form of writtenspoken art) was its persuasive abilities when it comes to the real world and real life. Plato hardly explores the art as art, concerned with how the art should influence life Aristotle analyzes the art very systematically and from this how they produce their ethical effects, art persuades through its artistic technique Nussbaum (Cultivating Humanity) Approaches literature as a speculative form Essay focuses on what literature does and can do Argues: that the ethical study of literature must be one that, by attending closely to how literature cultivates and develops imaginative powers, helps us to understand literature and, by doing so, how to be world citizens We become world citizens by understanding the way that literature acts on our imaginative power Nussbaums fundamental assumption is that readers are incomplete subjects, we are open and always in the process of becoming Her view of life is comedic, she does not see us as complete beings that are fated to end up one way or another; we have an immense capacity for knowledge, understanding and growth What: LiteratureArt: illuminates the possible (what you could do, places that you could go to, people that you could become), and reveals the limits of the readers imaginative powers (this is key to her argument) Literature opens up the realm of possibility Why? Literary Ethics: to cultivate a capacity for compassion across boundaries (national, racial, gender, sexuality, etc.) without dissolving them Literature helps us to begin to understand the inexhaustible character of the human soul and therefore be less ruthless and forgiving of others and of ourselves (Literature)By teaching us the limits of our imagination and allowing us to recognize that there are boundaries that sometimes cannot or should not be crossed Making the effort to understand allows us to empathize with a race or gender or sexuality that we might not otherwise understand in any way at all (although you might never fully understand what it is like to be in that persons shoes) How? (Ethical Criticism): to see the eternity in everyones soul and to learn respect for others; when we dont respect others, we disrespect ourselves To learn to reason as the adversary and to learn how to accommodate them (empathize and learn to not seek revenge) To learn how to master ones passions and therefore to learn how to refrain from acting on fantasies (about others) that debase their humanity To learn how to respect, but not idolize, canonical writers
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