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ENG305 Exam Outline.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Harris

write about at least 4 texts (2 for each question), use at least 3 that didn’t use for essay o function of literature in 18ce o authorship [spectator] o on reading o on satire [contradiction of social function, correcting morals vs personally violating, tactics, reasons] -> Beggar + Gulliver? o historical context question, historical change of literature (social/eco situations) o literary form/convention learning in 18ce o not factually based, broad, generalizations of corpus of text o synthesize, make authoritative pronouncements o feel over time, intuitive sense of literature, why important/interesting o teaches readers by hitting on emotional level (lady’s dressing room -> don’t look at women same way) o essay on criticism -> learning is progress like dancing, like diet… important learning is permanent o learning by experience – verses on the death of dr swift – futility of trying to control self-image, eulogy of self to be read in tavern with noise… o learning from experience, feeling o spectator -> imitate, feel authority, act like me, read me… do it day after day, process will make you different in end than beginning [vs news not remembered after put down o emotional level, impact, can’t regurgitate info [if so, half-learned, not finished as people] o reading profoundly social, rely on cultural institutions to control society and keep it from disintegrating into chaos… literature as crucial role in governing Social nature/function o more isolated and marginalized writers… begin by situating self in gendered bodies, positions of marginalization, articulate position asymmetry, grotesque body, deformity, transgression… relate to idea that experiences don’t relate to others because women o Lady Mary Wortley Montagu – equality o beautiful woman -> face maimed by disease o Socioeconomic factors of beauty… losing beauty for women = financial and social ruin (beauty sole ambition and reason for life) o Virgil’s Eclogue… shepherds cry -> nature responds somehow o Belief in town no way to explore pain, nature deaf to it, isolation o Smallpox o Lamenting beauty disappeared from smallpox  No borrowed luster can my charms restore o Angry at chemists and doctors who promised cure, saying how sellers and vendors they sold much because men bought gifts for her from them  False and trifling is art you boast, no art can give back beauty o Satirical element? Ridiculing Flavia for lamenting she won’t get gifts anymore  Beauty’s fled, presents/lovers are no more.. time when opera tickets poured before feet, earliest cherries mine o Disembodied voice, exchange between impersonal voice and speaker’  Cease, hapless maid, forsake mankind… men mock the idol of former vow  World adieu, toilette, patches, operas, circles… live in deserted place o Flavia complaining vs voice countering o Flavia looking in mirror, don’t recognize self, disembodiment and depersonalization, alienation from body… “frightful spectre,” to myself unknown o Masked, deprivation and echoing of voices, confusion of voices and identity and others… chamber of self o 18CE moderating suffering o Mira’s Picture o Mary Leapor, housemaid, taught self to read, published after life but anticipating publication in poems… female authorship o Liked reading Pope o Anti-pastoral genre, unattractive shepherdess o Interested in how she will be viewed from people in the city when and if she is published o Mira’s non-beauty discussed at lengths by other men, end note that the description is a caricature -> ill-proportioned, exaggerated flaws o Muttering, soiled linen, stranger to beams of day, rock-skin, freckles, eyes dim, rush-candle reading wicked plays than milking cows, brows studious, has teeth o “Rules” of not satirizing flaws and defects that people can’t change, but what people should do a bout… unfair practice to ridicule deformity or embarrass someone for something they couldn’t help… but affectation, if they try to cover them up, fair game -> Swift and Pope o But at the same time, contradiction that body embodies moral character o Immoral habits wound the appearance… o Labourer but neglect duties and study at night… like Mary would have gotten in trouble for studying instead of doing chores o Embodying flaws as female author… construct authorial persona, complex figure o Self-denial and criticism o Her shape -> Mountains on mountains -> Pope’s essay on self-criticism… always uphill, new hurdle and never-ending struggle to teach and perfect oneself o Physically embodying alps, body is mountain and mountains… listening shoulders… routine at night, muttering verses to herself o Working class writer but has right to work because she’s doing her homework o Living and breathing craft, comparable to aristocratic and spontaneous approach to poetry… more dedicated as make time when they don’t have time o More legitimate as a labourer because can put blood and sweat into her poetry o Change in 18CE culture, rise of different idea of authorship, involving work and becoming profession o Pope first professional writer in English o Labour and effort makes person better writer, there should be more work involved o Comparable to romantic poets… spontaneous, not as life’s work o Realist poet… uncovering realities and gruel labours involved with poetry (+ pastoral is idealized, but there has to be work involved in it somehow… taken for granted)… facing reality? o End: note, this description of her person is a caricature (and men must tend to cattle) o Lover: A Ballad o Woman not supposed to express desires and thoughts o Mary eloped to go against arranged marriage o Stating kind of man she wants o Women expected to pretend to not know bodies or what they want… consent and force ambiguous, men and women meant to play game  I hate to be cheated  Oh was there a man… good sense and good nature, value his pleasure, contribute to mine… for I would have the power  I know too well how time flies along, we live but few years  Never be fond of any but me o Revolutionary for explicit statement of desired partner o Ballad considered traditional, unmediated, sincere and spontaneous o Ovid’s Daphne->tree  Harden like trees, like rivers grow cold -> toasters and songsters never enter pass of my heart o until perfect lover comes along will keep chaste o doesn't want rudeness, disgust and disapproval at men making sexual advances o stating clearly at a time when remarks may not be taken seriously o fop – effeminate man obsessed with appearances o pointing to power dynamics between men and women o champagne and chicken, ceasing to be formal, her to be proud… rejecting feminity, idealizing fantasy of showing her sexual desires  be banished from discretion and fear o romantic relationship and friendship with partner  friend and lover handsomely mixed o chaste not because she’s boring/religious… but waiting for person o Anne Finch – Unequal Fetters o Men have longer chains than women… begging for love despite marriage  Marriage does but slightly tie men while close prisoners we remain o Tone of resentment  Could we stop the time that’s flying… lov would be worth cost o Hymen god of marriage but also represent female virginity  They the larger slaves of hymen begging love again at full length of chain o Men seeking other virgins, younger women as wife grows old o “ruin” – sexual (women disadvantage by pregnany)  spring of life done o lives for women shorter (and youth) o suggesting men have cultural sanction/social encouragement to pursue extramarital affairs  hearts won, seek for new faces o but people didn’t marry for love at the time, only economical o people accept marriage as burden and obligation at time  man’s invention, men fetters walking freer round satire [contradiction of social function, correcting morals vs personally violating, reasons] Satire & half-goat beast… exercise of ridiculing considered healthy -> teaching people where they belong (bringing celebrity down to earth) Beggars Opera –  spectators sit on stage as criminals/beggars impersonate them, reflect on them badly, mock them  Unfair, illogical statements, false connections to make want to correct  People went to opera to escape, scene shown would be surprised, same scene can be seen steps away outside theatre  Opera expensive, reserved for upper classes, empty entertainment; subtitles… everyone who wanted to be fashionable went although don’t know what it meant  Scenes in opera are luxurious, idyllic, no worries, lavish, unrealistic, artificial… celebration of artifice and expense  Logic of how plots executed not questioned  Beggars, prostitutes, criminals… set in London, English ballads and folk tunes rather than Italian arias…  Beggars on stage instead of princes/princesses  Very successful, heavily influence British stage  Peachum as emergent middle class, capitalist figure… ruthless and ambitious about making money, willing to exploit anyone, greed and acquisition o not capitalist, but is criminal… figure of capitalist is unambiguously a criminal, no place for him in society except in crime… middle class, industrious, assumd power through effort because upper class is not making effort to rule, moral vacuum o Upper class needs to establish order… greedy middleclassman is taking control of society  Peachum arrests Macheath to hang him for the money… Macheath trusted prostitutes but they’re thieves, he catches them stealing his things, they turn him over to Peachum o Vices of lower class o Fancy dance between prostitutes and Macheath, dance in formal French manner… privilege of upper class… sumptuary laws that if not noble, can’t dress like one but people still did it, especially in London o Dance was impossible, because bearing and posture, nobility of mind… dancing written in person… o John Lock -> everyone born with blank state… dancing was not natural talent, had to spend years to learn what was natural o Dancing as bodily sign of class and origins o Prostitutes and beggars dancing in such gentile way -> threatening… other crucial things and morality in danger… things that could be and should be seen in their bearing and faces o Implication: no difference between beggar-noble’s morals and ability o Have to examine one’s own vices when leave theatre and confront Gin Lane scene… no longer deny something of self in what they saw o Status and consistency in question  Marriage – cynical view towards social commitment, obligations and pastoral o Slave to others…
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