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study guide

38 Pages
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Department
School of Environment
Course Code
ENV222H1
Professor
Mairi Mac Donald

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Title/ Author Date Summary Interdisciplinary Env Studies /Michael Soule and Daniel
Press 1988 environmental studies suffers from universalism – it includes so much that it
doesn’t really include anything; the subject matter as environment as problem seems to
be holistic
-over the past 100 years, environmentalism has gone from a local problem to expansion
spatially as a global problem; expansion in terms of human activity to almost all spheres
of human activity
-anthropocentrism is the dominant view (mainstream environmentalism)
-deep ecology – Naess ecocentric and radical view
2.1 Applied
19th c. moral concern for nature limited to animal rights; domestic animal,
individual creature - concern for domestic animals only – one animal
concern for resource depletion, eg forests, wildlife
pollution as a human health concern, in cities, eg sewage
- new concern for the loss of resources; resources might be depleted and
need actions to save them
1962 Silent Spring; toxic chemicals as problem
moral concern for nature expands to ecosystems
-pollution became a bigger issue – pesticides on the agenda; problem as
pollution not only substances to water/land/air but also the products
themselves – regulate motor vehicles and pesticides
1950s on spatial expansion of pollution problem: regional seas (Mediterranean),
long-range transport of air pollution (acid rain)
products as problem (motor vehicle emissions, solid waste)
governments and firms establish environment departments
1980s on spatial expansion to global level: ozone layer depletion, climate change
sectoral expansion from resource and manufacturing industries to other
such as agriculture fashion and finance
horizontal expansion of the environment mandate within governments and
firms; expansion to other institutions, such as hospitals and universities
environment seen as "wicked problem" (reader p. 2 "resist purely
scientific or technological understanding and solution")
Today, environment is found in almost all societal organizations.
-1980s – now: expansion into almost all spheres of human activities; problem of
environment across the board at least in industrialized countries; resource management
schools/units established; development of the science of ecology in the 20s-30s; view of
looking at interactions within the ecosystem as a whole; 1960s creation of the
environmental studies unit; Stand Alone Environmental Studies Program was established;
university is split between the Stand Alone and the ___ - friction same with the
government
2.2 Within the university
19th c. establishment of resource management faculties, eg Forestry, U. of T.
www.notesolution.com
1930s ecology appears; interdisciplinary interest in ecosystem as a whole;
toxicology, focus widening from resources to pollution
1960s environmental studies/sciences appear; combining resource management
and relevant social sciences
1980s all disciplines move to incorporate environment (eg, environmental
chemistry; nature writing in English)
number of environmental studies/sciences programs expands
Today, environment is found throughout the university, both within disciplines and in
interdisciplinary programs.
Thus over the past hundred years in both practice and academe, environment has
expanded into all forms of activity. It is hardly surprising environmental studies sees it as
"limitless."
Is environmental studies emerging in a transdisciplinary mode, that is, as a new
discipline?
Is the environmental studies program buyable?
-do we need boundaries to have intellectual rigor?
-No: people in the field are going to be specialized, but are interconnection; the
boundaries are going to evolve;
The two solitudes of science and non-science
Institutional problems - legitimacy within the university; the need for institutional
boundaries within the university, combined with the reality of continual borrowing and
interaction across disciplinary boundaries."Part I: Introduction to the Developing
Environmental Impact." / Andrew Goudie and Heather Viles
19972. Chronology of human impacts
. see Goudie and Viles (1997) Table 1.1 and 1.2
. the following chronology adapts Table 1.2 to show both changes in impacts and the
causes to be explored in this course (admittedly this list gives a Eurocentric view):
10,000 - 5,000 years ago . development of agriculture
. transition from nomadic to settled communities;
development of human organization and power relationships
5,000 years ago - 500 AD. technological and cultural change allows development of
empire, eg Chinese, Roman and thus expansion of
impacts
500 - 1400 (approx.) . feudal era; impacts largely static
1400 - 1700 . development of empirical method. access to fossil fuel
www.notesolution.com
energy (coal). emergence of capitalism: goal of ever-increasing consumptio .
development of the state; expansion of organizational power
1700 - 1945 . industrial revolution technologies, eg steam engine.
European expansion and global domination means global spread of organizational
capacity (power). transportation of organisms and infectious disease. global spread of
industrial technologies
. oil becomes dominant fossil fuel; nuclear power. internal combustion engine. population
growth in industrializing nations. emergence of environmentalism; concern for impacts
and first questioning of anthropocentrism
1945 - 2011 . rapid acceleration in number and scale of impacts; eg,
from local to long-range transport of air pollution. first truly global impacts: ozone layer,
climate change, oceanic fishery depletion. rapid expansion of urbanization (both creating
new impacts but also reducing them). rapid expansion in number of states (organizational
capacity). establishment of transnational corporation (organizational capacity). mass
transportation by motor vehicle and air (tourism). "farming" expanded to include forests
and fish
1989 - Berlin Wall falls: "triumph of capitalism" - ever-increasing per capita
consumption and impacts on nature established as the dominant global objective.
strengthening of environmentalism. expansion of environment as subject of study and
management to all facets of human activity (Jan. 13 lecture)
3. Spatial evolution of impacts
The basic theme is evolution of spatial impacts from local to global
. changes in transportation technology (ship design) allows spread of impacts
. European expansion, industrial techniques spread
. interconnected combination of local and global impacts; reader p. 19
"systemic" global change = truly global impact (eg ozone layer)
"cumulative" global change = sum of local impacts
. spatial distribution of impacts on humans is related to vulnerability
North (industrialized world) able to reduce and shield itself from impacts
South (non-industrialized) less able to do so
. enormous impacts in areas with both rapid population increase and industrialization, eg
China and India
-Europe has been the origin in the changes in societal organization – influenced the
development of the modern world
-local global – development of transportation technology lies at the heart of this
dispersion
-local/global connection – all impacts have their origins in what people did in their daily
local life – now have global implications --- globalization is a factor that makes env
management so complicated
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Title/ Author Date Summary Interdisciplinary Env Studies /Michael Soule and Daniel Press 1988 environmental studies suffers from universalism it includes so much that it doesnt really include anything; the subject matter as environment as problem seems to be holistic -over the past 100 years, environmentalism has gone from a local problem to expansion spatially as a global problem; expansion in terms of human activity to almost all spheres of human activity -anthropocentrism is the dominant view (mainstream environmentalism) -deep ecology Naess ecocentric and radical view 2.1 Applied 19th c. moral concern for nature limited to animal rights; domestic animal, individual creature - concern for domestic animals only one animal concern for resource depletion, eg forests, wildlife pollution as a human health concern, in cities, eg sewage - new concern for the loss of resources; resources might be depleted and need actions to save them 1962 Silent Spring; toxic chemicals as problem moral concern for nature expands to ecosystems -pollution became a bigger issue pesticides on the agenda; problem as pollution not only substances to water/land/air but also the products themselves regulate motor vehicles and pesticides 1950s on spatial expansion of pollution problem: regional seas (Mediterranean), long-range transport of air pollution (acid rain) products as problem (motor vehicle emissions, solid waste) governments and firms establish environment departments 1980s on spatial expansion to global level: ozone layer depletion, climate change sectoral expansion from resource and manufacturing industries to other such as agriculture fashion and finance horizontal expansion of the environment mandate within governments and firms; expansion to other institutions, such as hospitals and universities environment seen as "wicked problem" (reader p. 2 "resist purely scientific or technological understanding and solution") Today, environment is found in almost all societal organizations. -1980s now: expansion into almost all spheres of human activities; problem of environment across the board at least in industrialized countries; resource management schools/units established; development of the science of ecology in the 20s-30s; view of looking at interactions within the ecosystem as a whole; 1960s creation of the environmental studies unit; Stand Alone Environmental Studies Program was established; university is split between the Stand Alone and the ___ - friction same with the government 2.2 Within the university 19th c. establishment of resource management faculties, eg Forestry, U. of T. www.notesolution.com 1930s ecology appears; interdisciplinary interest in ecosystem as a whole; toxicology, focus widening from resources to pollution 1960s environmental studies/sciences appear; combining resource management and relevant social sciences 1980s all disciplines move to incorporate environment (eg, environmental chemistry; nature writing in English) number of environmental studies/sciences programs expands Today, environment is found throughout the university, both within disciplines and in interdisciplinary programs. Thus over the past hundred years in both practice and academe, environment has expanded into all forms of activity. It is hardly surprising environmental studies sees it as "limitless." Is environmental studies emerging in a transdisciplinary mode, that is, as a new discipline? Is the environmental studies program buyable? - do we need boundaries to have intellectual rigor? - No: people in the field are going to be specialized, but are interconnection; the boundaries are going to evolve; The two solitudes of science and non-science Institutional problems - legitimacy within the university; the need for institutional boundaries within the university, combined with the reality of continual borrowing and interaction across disciplinary boundaries."Part I: Introduction to the Developing Environmental Impact." / Andrew Goudie and Heather Viles 19972. Chronology of human impacts . see Goudie and Viles (1997) Table 1.1 and 1.2 . the following chronology adapts Table 1.2 to show both changes in impacts and the causes to be explored in this course (admittedly this list gives a Eurocentric view): 10,000 - 5,000 years ago . development of agriculture . transition from nomadic to settled communities; development of human organization and power relationships 5,000 years ago - 500 AD . technological and cultural change allows development of empire, eg Chinese, Roman and thus expansion of impacts 500 - 1400 (approx.) . feudal era; impacts largely static 1400 - 1700 . development of empirical method. access to fossil fuel www.notesolution.com energy (coal). emergence of capitalism: goal of ever-increasing consumptio . development of the state; expansion of organizational power 1700 - 1945 . industrial revolution technologies, eg steam engine. European expansion and global domination means global spread of organizational capacity (power). transportation of organisms and infectious disease. global spread of industrial technologies . oil becomes dominant fossil fuel; nuclear power. internal combustion engine. population growth in industrializing nations. emergence of environmentalism; concern for impacts and first questioning of anthropocentrism 1945 - 2011 . rapid acceleration in number and scale of impacts; eg, from local to long-range transport of air pollution. first truly global impacts: ozone layer, climate change, oceanic fishery depletion. rapid expansion of urbanization (both creating new impacts but also reducing them). rapid expansion in number of states (organizational capacity). establishment of transnational corporation (organizational capacity). mass transportation by motor vehicle and air (tourism). "farming" expanded to include forests and fish 1989 - Berlin Wall falls: "triumph of capitalism" - ever-increasing per capita consumption and impacts on nature established as the dominant global objective. strengthening of environmentalism. expansion of environment as subject of study and management to all facets of human activity (Jan. 13 lecture) 3. Spatial evolution of impacts The basic theme is evolution of spatial impacts from local to global . changes in transportation technology (ship design) allows spread of impacts . European expansion, industrial techniques spread . interconnected combination of local and global impacts; reader p. 19 "systemic" global change = truly global impact (eg ozone layer) "cumulative" global change = sum of local impacts . spatial distribution of impacts on humans is related to vulnerability North (industrialized world) able to reduce and shield itself from impacts South (non-industrialized) less able to do so . enormous impacts in areas with both rapid population increase and industrialization, eg China and India -Europe has been the origin in the changes in societal organization influenced the development of the modern world -local global development of transportation technology lies at the heart of this dispersion -local/global connection all impacts have their origins in what people did in their daily local life now have global implications --- globalization is a factor that makes env management so complicated www.notesolution.com -vulnerability (Gaudi reading) predisposing factors: ability of the organism/population to withstand the stress of the impact --- Haiti high vulernability associated with poverty developing populations: 3 interpretations of globalstrends: nd (1) Arithmetic exponential view: 2 stages (1 = slow growth; 2 = acceleration due to industrial revolution) (2) Logarithmic logistic view: 3 revolutions: (1) the tool; (2) ag rev (3) industrial rev humans increased carrying capacity of the earth X3 (3) Arithmetic logistic view: 12, 000 years of 3 cycles primary medieval, modernization Hunter/gatherers Domestication caused genetic changes in plants/animals as people tried to breed more useful, better-tasting types Irrigation one of the 1 effects on the env; Nile Valey 5, 000 yrs ago (pastoralism (the use of land for keeping animals)) Mining of ores and smelting of metals deforestization (alter the env) Steam engine and internal combustion engine (19 century) increased need for access to energy and decreased dependence on animals Environment as a series of interlocked systems; affected by natural or human stresses can produce some changes in the system or responses = env transformations or issues Predisposing factors = features of the natural or human env which make a system vulnerable to stress Inciting factors = stresses that trigger change in the system Contributing factors = the whole range of additional stresses which make the response more noticeable and acute Human Domination of Earths Systems / Peter Vitousek 2000 What does this picture of the evolution of impacts to the current state of a human- dominated planet mean for nature, for us, and for the prospects of reducing these impacts? 1. Interconnectedness of impacts . difficulties in managing "wicked" problems -2 major current issues: climate change and biodiversity -thousands of actors need to change behaviour wicked problems b/c of interconnectedness 2. Potential irrever
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