ESS105H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Halide Minerals, Continental Crust, Silicate Minerals

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23 Jul 2016
ESS105 Notes
Chapter 14:
Rocks and smaller sized sediment at glacier’s base scrapes the bedrock through a process called
abrasion (when they get embedded in the base and side of a glacier)
Plucking: when rocks and stones become frozen on the base or side of a glacier
How do glaciers transport material? Supraglacially (at the surface), Englacially (within the ice)
and Subglacially (base of the ice)
14.4 – What are the landforms of alpine glaciation?
Moraine: sediment carried and deposited by a glacier.
A lateral moraine forms along the sides of a glacier, expressed as a dark fringe or rocks and
other debris
14.7 – What is the evidence for past glaciation?
How do we determine when and where the most recent ice age occurred?
oFirst geologists figure out which areas were covered with ice and which weren’t.
oThen they use fossils and isotopic dating to figure out when they existed
oThe period they existed is called glacial period or glacial maximum
The period when glaciers are melting is called interglacial period.
14.8 – What happened during past ice ages?
In the past, huge ice sheets covered the northern and southern hemispheres
Glacier increase happened during the glacial period and glacial melting happened in the
interglacial period
Compared to other periods in time, the past two million years had the highest increase in
glaciers. This is why geologists call it the Ice Age
Back then, a large ice sheet covered all of Canada, most of US, much of Asia, northern Europe
and the alps of Southern Europe
14.10 – What processes occur along shorelines?
What processes affect shorelines? Waves break on the shoreline, eroding rock and loose
material, deposit sand and move sediment around
Hard rock resists erosion and forms rocky cliffs. Softer sedimentary rock gets eroded and forms
gentle slopes and rounded hills
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14.11 – What causes high tides and low tides?
Tides are changes in the height of sea level
The difference between high and low tides is typically 1 to 3m
Tides are caused by the pull of gravity of the moon on the oceans
14.12 – How do waves form and propagate?
All of them form individually. All similar in size and shape and follow each other
Highest part: crest. Lowest part: trough. Distance between crest and trough is the wave height
Most ocean waves are formed by the wind blowing on the surface of the water
When a wave reaches a shallow area, the bottom of the wave begins shearing against the
surface. The wave slows down, and increase in height because the wavelengths get shorter
14.13 – How is material eroded, transported and deposited along shorelines?
When waves crash onto the shore, they cause erosion
Waves cause large angular rocks to be round and flattened. With further action, stones get
crushed into sand
During storms, vigorous waves carry sediment further up the beach then normal
When waves approach the coastline at an angle, the sand moves laterally along the coast. This
process is called a longshore drift.
Longshore current, or a current flowing along a coast transports sediment parallel to the coast.
14.17 – What happens when sea level changes?
When sea level rises and the coast partly submerges, it’s called a submergent coast
Estuaries are formed when some coastal islands have drowned in the water already, giving an
irregular shape ( somewhat like the faint blue coastal area near the main islands in Fiji )
Reefs, offshore sandbars and underwater parts of deltas are the typical submerged objects that
may be exposed from falling sea levels
Chapter 1
Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
Crust – oceanic and continental
Continental crust has a similar composition to granite
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The crust and mantle together make the lithiosphere
The mantle portion of the lithiosphere is called the lithiospheric mantle
The lithiosphere is mainly solid
The mantle portion beneath the lithiosphere is called the asthenosphere
The primary reason for the elevation of a region is the thickness of its underlying crust
Oceanic crust is thinner and contains denser rock than continental crust
Mud, sand and large rocks are also known as sediment and they are formed by the breaking and
wearing away of other rocks in the landscape.
Sedimentary rock: formed from loose sediment deposited by moving water, air or ice
Igneous rock: formed from solidified magma
Metamorphic rock: rocks changed by temperatures, pressures or deformation
Hydrothermal rock: rocks that precipitate directly from hot water
Lithification: the process of sediment turning into rock
Chapter 2
The youngest layer is always on top and the oldest is at the bottom
The fault is younger than the rock layers it crosses
The tan layer is younger than the clasts or the bedrock
A younger magma can bake or change older rocks nearby
Four types of maps: Shaded-relief map, Topographic map, Satellite image, Geological map
Shaded relief: light and dark shading
Topographic: Contour lines
Satellite: Distribution of plants
Geological: Distribution of rock units
Geologic time: Cenozoic (most recent), Mesozoic, Paleozoic, Precambian (oldest)
Fossils: shells, bones, leaf impressions and other impressions of prehistoric animals and plants
When geologists cannot do field studies, they study magma chambers beneath volcanoes using
telescopes and high-resolution imaging devices
Chapter 3
Mid ocean ridge: underwater mountain range formed by plate tectonics
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