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Earth Sciences
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GLG105H1 Exam Review 10-12-07 10:47 PM
1. ancient times
May have been the most influential later
o Earth time immense compared to our life
o Water flows back and forth within the earth (breathing
o Fire-air-water-earth above one another (shells)
2. renaissance
da Vinci
hand written observations and insights
sediments accumulate in ocean
fossils come from living organisms
De Re Metallica (on the nature of metals)
o Mainly about mining in Saxony
o Includes mineral classification
o Uses the term “fossils” first (referred to anything dug up)
o Outlines dissertation on a solid contained within a solid
o Argues that sedimentary strata deposited in water
o Formulates stratigraphy principles:
! Superposition
! Originally horizontally
! Continuity
o Explains rock sequence in Tuscany
o Recognizes “gluzsogetraeas shark teeth
Process-oriented thinking

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Cartesian coordinates
Principiae Philosophiae
o Earth formed from extinguished star
o Four phases of cooling (produced shells)
o Outer shell collapsed
Biblical dogma
Annals of the World
God created the earth on Saturday, October 22, 4004 BC
Sacred theory of the earth
o 7 stages of earths development
o consistent with biblical account
3. 18th century
Suggests great age for Earth from fallen boulders
Fossils grew from seeds and eggs within the rocks
1730 Physia Sacra
fossils buried by biblical flood
o “homo diluvii testis”
Des epoques de la nature
o Dates for origin of earth using cooling of iron spheres
! Estimated age ~ 75 000 years
Formation of rocks: fireman vs watermen (plutonists and neptunists)
Werner, the “great oracle of geology

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Short classification of the various types of mountains
Rocks formed in 4 stages from a hot primeval ocean:
o Young volcanic
o Swept-together
o Stratified
o Primitive/ transitional
Basalt controversy
Catastrophic view
Hutton, the “gentleman farmer
Theory of the earth
Heat as geologic driving force
Rocks from magma
o Granite crosscuts limestone schist’s
o Repeated cycle of deposition, uplift, erosion shows long time
Uniformitarian view
Experiments with whinstone
Shows basalt did form from melt
4. 19th century
Smith (digging of canals)
Principle of faunal succession
1815 geologic map of England
o “the map that changed the world”
1802 map and column of rocks near Paris
suggests several catastrophic floods to have formed these layers
recognized mass extinctions (but refuses evolution)
examines “homo divulii testis” is fossil of huge salamander
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