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Mid Term 1 reading.docx

Earth Sciences
Course Code
Charly Bank
Study Guide

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Intro: GLG110 3/17/2012 9:59:00 PM
Poster: March 5th: class time outside and your present poster. 5/6 topics
then you will be presenting the poster to the class and prof etc. know your
topic well!
There will be a tutorial. THIRD WEEK before and after class.
Poster: 3‟X5‟, poweroipnt of other software on a resource a disaster an area
Blue and purple on map are sedimentary rocks
Lake Superior has red rocks-surrounded by granite rocks
Lake ON is more purple/blue: limestone rocks
What does the vinegar in the experiment indicate: acid rain.
Based on the results: one is more acidic and the other one less acidic.
Which is which? Granite is more acidic
Superior: granite, more acidic, reacts more to acidic rain
Limestone (Lake ON) able to compensate acid rain
Lake ON suffer
What is what made from?
Glass: sand, quartz
Plastic: oil
aluminum beaucile
salt: you eat it and salt roads then washed down the drain to the lakes

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Lecture 2: Plate Tectonics 3/17/2012 9:59:00 PM
Plate Tectonics
Experiment: Density and Isostasy
•Ice cube placed in beaker of water
•When melted, will the volume change?
•Vile of water with various liquids poured in consecutively
•Liquids order themselves by density, no matter the order poured in
•Isostacy - material will sink into a liquid
•No matter how ice melts, the same fraction will sit above/below the water
Planet Earth
•Continents on average are 300m high
•Have mountain belts and shelf marks boundaries
•Oceans on average are 4m deep, mid ocean ridges are very deep (10km);
volcanic island chain
Plate Boundaries
•Earths surface is broken into plates
•Location of volcanoes - most line up like pearls on a string
•Locations of earthquakes - line up even better!
•Divergent plate boundaries - when two plates diverge
•As plates separate, earth rises and attaches to plates
•Plate also called lithosphere
•Below the plate is the asthenosphere
•When plates separate, water fills gap to create ocean
•When lithosphere things and the asthenosphere first breaks
surface it emerges as a volcano
Convergent Plate boundaries
•If two oceanic lithospheres meet, one will dip below the other - „subduction‟
•Typically a row of volcanoes sit on overriding plate - cause earthquakes
•Deep sea trench at subduction zone
•If a continent and ocean meet, the ocean will dip below
•If a continent meets a continent they collide and form mountain
•Convergent boundaries form curved boundary - place where we have major

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•If you look at maps of earthquakes in general the earthquakes go deeper
and deeper farther in
to the continent, away from the subduction zone
•Oceanic plateaus and accreted terranes - rocks that separate from content
during subduction
•Wilson cycle - 500 million years is how long it takes an ocean to grow wider
and then close
Transform Plate Boundaries
•Where two plates pass each other, one moves on way and the other moves
the different way
•Divergent plat boundaries are parallel
Plate Tectonics
•Transform boundaries are adjacent
•Balanced plate growth means boundary doesn't shift
Map of Plates
•Some are very large, while other are small
•Plates move about 3-9 cm a year
•5cm/year * 1mill = 50,000m = 50km!
•Crust on mantle - compositional
•Lithosphere and asthenosphere are the strength
Measuring Plate Velocities
•How fast does the pacific Plate move for the Hawaii hotspot?
•Rise over the run (xkm/nyears)
•Earths magnetism - axial field
Cause and Driving Force of Plate Tectonics
•Cause - the cooling of planet and radioactive decay
•Fast velocities happen where there are many subductions
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