ESS102H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Outer Core

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17 Apr 2012
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Geology Final Topics
April 17, 2012
Society - Chapter 1 and 2:
Resources, hazards, water
Plate Tectonics Chapter 3:
Locations of volcanoes and earthquakes
Earthquakes:
Western coast of North and South America
Edges of mid-ocean ridges
Volcanically-active islands
Ocean trenches
Island arcs
Volcanoes:
Occur in belts
Especially west coast of North and South America
Western edge of the Pacific Ocean
Parts of island arcs
Ocean trenches
Identify areas where there are [refer to maps!!]:
Mountains but no earthquakes
Southern edge of Africa
Mountains go more inland than earthquakes which stay mostly on the coast
Mountains but no volcanoes
Southern edge of Africa
Inland parts of Asia
Earthquakes but no volcanoes
There are few volcanoes along plate boundaries in the middle of the Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans
3 types of plate boundaries
Divergent
Convergent (Oceanic and Continental Plates, Continental Collision)
Transform
Earth’s interior:
Lithosphere: Crust and the rigid, upper part of the upper mantle
Asthenosphere: Molten upper mantle
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Crust: Outermost shell of the Earth
Mantle: Between the crust and the outer core
Measuring plate velocities and what is the driving force
Measured using satellites and lasers
GPS [Global Positioning System] uses small radio receivers and records signals from orbiting
satellites
Driving force must exceed the resisting forces (friction, etc.)
Slab Pull Subducting oceanic lithosphere is more dense than asthenosphere, so gravity pulls
the plate down
Ridge Push mid-ocean ridge is higher than the ocean floor because the lithosphere is thinner
and hotter
Because it’s higher, gravity causes the plate to slide away. This moves the plate outward
Mantle Convection (Hot Spot)
How fast and in what direction do the plates move?
Plates move at 1-15 cm/year (that’s how fast our fingernails grow!)
Minerals (chapter 4)
Properties [strength, shape, optical, other] & uses
Difference between rock and mineral?
Mineral is:
naturally occurring,
inorganic,
relatively consistent in composition,
crystalline solid,
ordered internal structure (regular, repeating ways, i.e. crystalline),
specific chemical composition (homogeneous)
What's not a mineral:
made in a lab,
created by other organisms (such as clams)
liquid or gas form
Properties:
Strength
strong: ionic bond (salt), covalent bond (quartz)
weak: electrostatic bonds (graphite)
Tenacity
elastic (mica)
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brittle (halite)
malleable (gold)
Fracture/cleavage
fracture = irregular breakage (quartz)
cleavage = breaking in smooth planes (calcite)
mica has silicate, which gives it great cleavage
diamond's carbon bonds also gives it great cleavage, re. the "faces" of the diamonds
when they are cut
Shape
Possible "unit cells" in 2D (i.e. triangle, hexagon, square, rectangle
Simplest type of unit cell in 3D is a cube
Optical
Lustre = how much light is reflected
metallic (pyrite)
admantine (diamond)
vitreous (quartz)
pearly (mica)
Transparancy = is light going through
transparent (calcite)
translucent (agate quartz)
opaque (amazonite, felspar)
Colour: what causes it?
Absorption
Diffraction
Interference
Chromophone elements
The minerals we should know:
Gold - malleable, electric conductor, element on the periodic table
Copper - thermal conductor
Graphite - weak, electrostatic bonds, stable at earth's surface, made out of carbon just like
Diamonds BUT different in bond shapes
Magnetite - magnetic, oxide
Corundum - oxide, ruby & sapphire both from this but are different colours
Pyrite - metallic, sulfide, "fool's gold
Galena - cubic crystals, sulfide
Gypsum - soft, sulfate Calcite - pretty soft (penny), good cleavage, transparent, smooth
planes
Quartz - pretty hard, strong, covalent bond, irregular fracture, vitreous lustre (like
glass),translucent, piezoelectric, oxide
Feldspar opaque
Mica - elastic, perfect cleavage, pearly lustre, silicate
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