Jan 16 Detailed lecture Note/Helpful for Exam

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Geography and Planning
David Roberts

Colonial Cities 1: The rule of ‘experts’in colonial Bombay Jan 16 Week 2 Looking at colonial Bombay as an example of a global city a city experiencing urban change due to Globalization.How it experienced colonization. Short history period of time: 50yr period. 1850-1902 Arguments for papers: 1: this is a global city. based on 2 sources. First part, intro of city, location, democraphics, who lives there, economy, industry, what do people do for work, other descrptors of the city (fact book, UN sites) half a page, next 2 pages, an argument as to why it is a global city. demonstrate understanding of globalzation, and knowlege of material available aboiut your city. its gloabl due to these factors. its global due to the different cultres it experiences. Review of Last week: Definition of G. Study that is trying to capture what sorts of changes have been taken place in a city or country because of the interconnectedness of people and things. Looking at 4 key aspects: 1 international commerce 2 capital moves across international boundaries a lot easier; remittances 3 travel and Migration, travel for leisure, tourism, as well as for work or to relocate 4 increases in communication and technology our networks are global networks across countries, like FB, snapchat we are able to communicate and keep up with news, ideas and cultures in a much wider network Some argue: 1) Time-Space compression: This has led to time-space compression. It took a long time to travel across the globe. These 4 factors have shrunken that time to that it takes to travel or communicate. Eliminated that friction of distance which is one of the reasons why G has an urban impact and causes urban change 2) De- territorialization: The nation-state as a decision making entity is less important because cities are a target capital of migration, of capital and travel. The state as an entity is less important. Because cities now are now a capital of migration, capital, dictating these sorts of relationships. Cities have risen in power as a result. 3) increased mechanisms of the nation of reinforcing those boundaries: ex. boundary line of the borders of El Paso andAudrez, theres a city on both sides separated by that border. 4) There is uneven geography to globalization. The wealthy are the ones experiencing G. 75% aren't much so, dont consume goods that came from somewhere else. But these things are changing. Theres an increasing availability of the internet and transportation of goods. The ways in which people experience G differs depending on where you are born and your statuses etc. Key themes this week: Idea of Colonialism in a particular colonial bombay. In that we explore the idea: - that expertise that gets transferred from one place to another in terms of managing B. -Idea of Colonial cartography and desirability of Legibility legibility is a thing that can be read how is the reading of map shaped colonial exercises -Geographical Imagination how we can imagine we know about a place but that may differ substantially from that might actually be going on -universal truths vs. culturally specific contexts things that is universally true everywhere and culturally specific contexts and how that created havoc of the colonial powers in bombay - public health and urban planning Bombay has been a colonial city for a long time and target of colonial expansion for a large part of its history. Colonialism- countries own territories outside their territory. this relationship between countries and its colonies. Designates its relationship between mostly european countries and their possessions. Many reasons why countries engaged in colonialism: -prestigious, status symbol. -Colonialism at its root is an economic practice. Colonies provided resources, markets and labor, also usually had a monopolistic relationship (England by owning B as a colony the trade relation wasn’t negotiated, it was just one relationship present) Why some used colonization as justification for it: -Religious. Christianity has the obligation to spread Christianity as a moral obligation. -Some were paternalistic.Some societies aren't able to civilize without the help of a colonial master. a colonial master. US and Philipians. P needed US to help them out. Colonial Bombay- explored via 2 case studies 1. street numbering 2. public health indicates for expert planning or expert led control over space. Rule of experts- universal ideas of how things should be done was part of the basis of colonialism. experts know best and they're trying to help out societies or people that may not know better. Urban Planning was a practice of expertise. it’s relatively new. Scientists and other people make decisions and implement those decisions without consultation. The Rule of Experts -western science can solve social ills -key decision should be in hands of experts -universal truths (that streets need #’s everywhere) Colonial Cartography -map making is tied to exploration. to this expansion of power from europe to new places. document new places that’ve been discovered. Colonial: Cartography and the desire of Legibility - to make places of Bombay legible to colonial authorities. that there is something about being able to construct maps and have keys that make spaces more knowable and less scary and more controllable. How does street numbering fit into that? Are street numbers an expertise? street numbering provides a grid that is outside the local context to refrain those faces to those who might want to visit or do a census or charge taxes. You can come in and just know the city in some sort of way. NorthAmerican cities are pretty new and the streets are on grids. Europe is complicated as there were old cities where travel wasn’t done by cars and were developed pre- urban planning, but developed system of urban planning earlier in a different way. street planning is boring but what its indicative is for the desire for colonial powers to make a space new and unfamilariable knowable, and that knowledge allows of other ways of power. knowledge is power. a knowledge of getting around the street is power. that power manifests in different ways like trying to tax people or find them. colonial powers had a hard time in making a system. experts may have a way to know how to make something better but local people realize it may be a way of exerting control and or may not want it they will do things to resent that sort of power. The failure of the system what the B did was street # were important for the colonial spaces where they lived and worked. so they gave up in a lot of ways which is a key understanding of limits. there is a C power that exerts power over a colony and has a will
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