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Matthew Farish

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The Gunbelt Emerged after the Second World War, and solidified by 1990 A new set of industrial locales, containing a new set of industries whose major preoccupation was producing Cold War weaponry Located far from older centres of commerce and production. The rise of the Gunbelt is the story of the decline of the industrial heartland and its cities and the emergence of states in the south and west (California, Texas, Colorado, Florida, etc.) as economic, political and social powers The Rise of the Gunbelt demonstrates that this economic restructuring is a direct result of the rise of the military industrial complex (MIC) and a wholly new industry based on defense spending and Pentagon contacts. Four types of early Canadian Suburbs 1. Affluent Enclaves (e.g. Shaughnessy, Vancouver) Garden City inspirations, large lots, restrictions on development Wealthy neighbourhoods, $ minimum on housing costs thus restricting type of people that live there 2. Unplanned Suburbs (e.g. Long Branch, Toronto) A foothold beyond the street grid, often built by ownerbuilders Opposite affluent enclave Lacks infrastructure 3. Middle-class Suburbs (e.g. The Annex, Toronto) More regulated and orderly, row houses, organized Working class owned 4. Industrial Suburbs (e.g. Maisonneuve, Montral) The Pittsburgh of Canada Incorporated community, created near a large city that is zoned for primarily industrial sources It is important to recall that these were all established long before the suburban boom of the post-World War II era, and before automobiles were widely available. An American Mediterranean, c. 1900: The Caribbean Sea Combined waterbody of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea Spain controlled most of the sea, Britain, France, the Netherlands, and Denmark established colonies on the islands along the eastern fringe. The 1800s brought U.S. ships into the Caribbean, especially after 1848, when many gold-seekers crossed the sea to reach California via Panama. After unsuccessful French attempts in the late 1800s to build a canal across Panama, the United States, in 1903, assumed control of the project. The 1914 opening of the Panama Canal paved the way for increased U.S. interest and involvement in this strategic sea, sometimes called the American Mediterranean. Cuba was Spanish possession, U.S. wanted it. USS main exploded in Havana Harbour, understood as a declaration of war War lasted about 100 days, Treaty gave U.S. Puerto Rico, Philippines, and Guam The naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (est. 1899) is the oldest U.S. Caribbean base. Guantanamo Bay is rented by Cuba to U.S. after U.S. troops left in 1902 John Wesley Powell (1834-1902) Studied botany, zoology and geology In 1869, he led the Powell Geographic Expedition through the Grand Canyon He went down the Colorado River, named the Grand Canyon and wanted to map this foreign area. He didnt produce a map for this area the first expedition, but made a map the second time round in the 1871 expedition The settlement of the American West soon followed his expeditions. he also thought that the land should be taken away from the natives and used more resourcefully, and that the white Europeans would be able to better exploit the land and its potential Natives were using controlled burns to destroy resources white Europeans wanted His work as a surveyor was essential for changing native geographies into western geographies. Railroad time and space -railroads were an unprecedented technological shift -increased the ability to move and lead humans to a very different relationship with their environment The locomotive never tire and devours distance with speed (the space btw places seemed smaller, and the time it took to travel btw places was less, known as space-time compression) -steam engines seen as iron civilizers, had an influence over nature just as the printing press had an influence over the human mind -even the sun it seemed had been brought into control via the invention of standard time zones -railroads represented a radical break with physical geography: limited the effects of weather and terrain (train could operate rain or shine) -seemed to simplify the complexities of the world, regulating travel and leading to economic specialization -even the journey itself was different, spectatorship (looking out the train window) rather than participation (actually commanding a horse or whatever)
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