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Final Exam KeyTerms

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Matthew Farish
Study Guide

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The Gunbelt
Emerged after the Second World War, and solidified by 1990
A new set of industrial locales, containing a new set of industries whose major preoccupation
was producing Cold War weaponry
Located far from older centres of commerce and production.
The rise of the Gunbelt is the story of the decline of the industrial heartland and its cities
and the emergence of states in the south and west (California, Texas, Colorado,
Florida, etc.) as economic, political and social powers
The Rise of the Gunbelt demonstrates that this economic restructuring is a direct result
of the rise of the military industrial complex (MIC) and a wholly new industry based on
defense spending and Pentagon contacts.
Four types of early Canadian Suburbs
1.Affluent Enclaves (e.g. Shaughnessy, Vancouver)
Garden City inspirations, large lots, restrictions on development
Wealthy neighbourhoods, $ minimum on housing costs thus restricting type of
people that live there
2. Unplanned Suburbs (e.g. Long Branch, Toronto)
A foothold beyond the street grid, often built by ownerbuilders
Opposite affluent enclave
Lacks infrastructure
3. Middle-class Suburbs (e.g. The Annex, Toronto)
More regulated and orderly, row houses, organized
Working class owned
4. Industrial Suburbs (e.g. Maisonneuve, Montréal)
The Pittsburgh of Canada
Incorporated community, created near a large city that is zoned for primarily
industrial sources
It is important to recall that these were all established long before the suburban boom of the
post-World War II era, and before automobiles were widely available.
An American Mediterranean, c. 1900: The Caribbean Sea
Combined waterbody of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea
Spain controlled most of the sea, Britain, France, the Netherlands, and Denmark
established colonies on the islands along the eastern fringe.
The 1800s brought U.S. ships into the Caribbean, especially after 1848, when many
gold-seekers crossed the sea to reach California via Panama.

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After unsuccessful French attempts in the late 1800s to build a canal across Panama,
the United States, in 1903, assumed control of the project.
The 1914 opening of the Panama Canal paved the way for increased U.S. interest and
involvement in this strategic sea, sometimes called the "American Mediterranean."
Cuba was Spanish possession, U.S. wanted it.
USS main exploded in Havana Harbour, understood as a declaration of war
War lasted about 100 days, Treaty gave U.S. Puerto Rico, Philippines, and Guam
The naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (est. 1899) is the oldest U.S. Caribbean
Guantanamo Bay is rented by Cuba to U.S. after U.S. troops left in 1902
John Wesley Powell (1834-1902)
Studied botany, zoology and geology
In 1869, he led the Powell Geographic Expedition through the Grand Canyon
He went down the Colorado River, named the Grand Canyon and wanted to map this
foreign area.
He didnt produce a map for this area the first expedition, but made a map the second
time round in the 1871 expedition
The settlement of the American West soon followed his expeditions.
he also thought that the land should be taken away from the natives and used more
resourcefully, and that the white Europeans would be able to better exploit the land and
its potential
Natives were using controlled burns to destroy resources white Europeans
His work as a surveyor was essential for changing native geographies into western
Railroad time and space
-railroads were an unprecedented technological shift
-increased the ability to move and lead humans to a very different relationship with their environment
The locomotive never tire and devours distance with speed (the space btw places seemed smaller, and
the time it took to travel btw places was less, known as space-time compression”)
-steam engines seen as iron civilizers”, had an influence over nature just as the printing press had an
influence over the human mind
-even the sun it seemed had been brought into control via the invention of standard time zones
-railroads represented a radical break with physical geography: limited the effects of weather and terrain
(train could operate rain or shine)
-seemed to simplify the complexities of the world, regulating travel and leading to economic
-even the journey itself was different, spectatorship (looking out the train window) rather than
participation (actually commanding a horse or whatever)

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-telegraph lines also strung along rail lines, made communication faster also
The Harlem renaissance
-The USA was moving toward global centrality, not just geographically but culturally, and NY was the
cultural and financial capital of the world at this time (1920’s and 30’s)
-From NY we see the Rise of the Talented Tenth (a term that described the likelihood of one in ten black
men becoming leaders of their race in the world)
-also see the embracing of the African American culture in NY, the destination for hundreds of thousands
of blacks
-Harlem was a popular destination for this group of people, known as the Black Metropolis
-Langston Hughes was a prominent black poet of this time
-The Savoy Ballroom: an integrated club where the audience was ‘integrated’ (blacks and whites) and
performers were also integrated (unlike the prominent Cotton Club where there were black performers but
the audience was often white-only)
The Frontier Thesis (F.J. Turner)
-The basis for the unique energy, democracy, and all things that make the US different was the idea of
the frontier
-Frontier was a zone of free land btw untamed wilderness and civilization
-The thesis basically described the evolution of this untamed wilderness to civilization and how this
civilization was impacted by their (the pioneers) frontier experience
-The speech was given by Turner in Chicago during the expo, and this was significant because at this
time the frontier was basically closed and the great city of Chicago was a product of this evolutionary
sequence that he was describing
-however, he never explained the mechanism of this evolution (probably because he thought of it as
natural, especially the beginnings)
-Speech had a very visual quality to it, he painted a wonderful picture for the audience
- Issues with term “frontier”, and why borderlands” is better:
-fuzzy “frontier” is too simplistic geographically
-Sheer conquest is supplemented by other kinds of relationships, including cultural exchange
-more actors, not justEuropeans” vs. “Natives” on the frontier, this is not complex enough
-Continuities emphasized over drastic change (not just a line moving westward)
Department stores and the Marble Palace
-a creation of the second half of the 19th century
-had a historic form of architecture, but also had modern, large, plate-glass windows on the bottom so
that people could walk by and window shop
-were used to keep women away from the dramatic parts of the market, but still promoted various
products to make the home better
-these stores were basically magnified model homes, and the knick knacks that one bought there were
displayed in their home just as they were displayed at the store
-elite shopping district was known as the “ladies mile
-conspicuous consumption by the nouveau riche (referred to the types of goods consumed at these
department stores, things you don’t actually need)
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