exam question.docx

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Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR100H1
Professor
Jason Hackworth

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1 It has been said that even though the colonial era is formally over in South America, its cities still tangibly reflect past colonial linkages. Please describe the broad history of South American colonialization with a particular focus on how it affected the shape, location, and make‐up of cities. Then describe some of the ways that cities have been affected by powerful countries and institutions (e.g. IMF) since formal decolonization. Introduction: South America cities are quite diverse in urban form, physical setting, culture, economic function, political governance and quality of life. Since the colonial era, urban societies throughout the region have served as important producers and consumers within a global economy until today. The region‟s cities contrast with cities of other world regions in many ways. Although similar processes of colonial experience with Iberian urban planning, historical development, recent globalization, growing socioeconomic polarization and spatial segregation, and informal economies have shaped urban development throughout the South American continent in many similar ways, the diversity of national and local experiences also stands out. Colonial power infused with the presence of indigenous cultures and exhibit widely different urban forms. Thesis: South American Cities reflect past colonial linkages in 3 major cultural-ecological region and is affected by foreign powerful institutions since formal decolonization. South American Cities can be divided into 3 major cultural-ecological regions: 1) Andean America  Greater indigenous presence which are divided by ethnicity, as large indigenous and mestizo populations sharing urban space with small elite groups of European heritage. It is dominated by an “alternative economy” of the informal sector and popular markets  The most rapidly urbanization region of South America currently. Its cities are operating in an environment of fiscal constraint and hence are experiencing social, political, environmental and logistical crisis 2) The Southern Cone  Heavily European in ethnic composition as well as in urban planning traditions. These cities contend with economic stagnation and a restive middle class  Except Paraguay which is similar to Andean America th  Underwent its urban demographic transitions by the mid-20 century. Urbanization rates in these relatively high-income countries peaked long ago. The large cities are growing slowly 3) Portuguese America  Brazil‟s cities have a Portuguese colonial heritage and language, a unique popular culture and urban forms  African admixture makes patterns of black-white stratification a key urban issue  Brazil is now just emerging from an exceedingly rapid and recent urban transition. The growth of Brazil‟s largest cities is currently slowing, as the focus of urban growth shifts to smaller and peripheral cities  Within a century, the rate of urbanization of the countries in South America has risen. Before, fewer than 10% of South Americans resided in urban centers. By now, all but one country is more than 60% urbanized.  Due to primarily to urban-based industrial development, South American countries began their urban transition earlier than other regions of the developing world with a more developed “core” and the less developed “periphery”.  The intense social and economic divisions have characterized the region in South America since Spanish and Portuguese colonization. Many urban dwellers are participating in self-help social movements for housing and social service provision Colonial Period th  In the early 16 century, both the Spanish and the Portuguese established settlements to exploit and administer their new territories in South America  The Spanish and Portuguese colonies differed in terms of site selection. Spain founded towns both on the coast and in highland areas. They conquered and rebuild important indigenous centers to concentrate the indigenous population into arbitrarily created villages.  The enduring importance of the Spanish and the Portuguese is also reflected in the religious and linguistic landscapes of South America‟s cities.  The Spanish-American City adopted the distinctive feature of a right-angled gridiron of streets oriented around a central plaza. This served as an effective instrument of social control. Important institutions were built. Spanish residents clustered around the urban core, often in houses built with the defensive architecture. Indians and undesirable land uses were banished to the urban periphery.  In Portuguese America, early settlement in Brazil generally was located close to the coast, at convenient points of interchange between the rural areas of production and metropolitan Portugal. Except for Sao Paulo, all the towns established before 1600 were located directly on the coast and functioned essentially as administrative centers and military strongholds, ports and commercial, residential and religious centers.  Towns near the coast took on polynuclear and linear forms. Neocolonial Urbanization  Between 1811 and 1830, independence came to each of the countries of South America. However, throughout South America, characteristically colonial urban forms perisited.  Until the mid-19 century, when elites embarked on campaigns of economic expansion, cities remained relatively small. Afterwards, South America became increasingly integrated into the global economy through the export of primary commodities.  Urban growth proceeded with the creation of new transportation links, rural-urban migration, urban infrastructures and general commercial development  Internal migration and foreign immigration contributed to South America‟s increasing rates of urbanization  The percentage of the national population living in the largest city rose in the late 19 th and early 20 centuries  Commercial expansion and demographic growth led to widespread deficiencies in urban housing, transportation, sanitation, and health problems.  The modern city emerged as entrepreneurs invested in new building projects and planers mounted ambitious public works projects to rationalize urban form.  Urbanization accelerated as South America moved into the 20 century  With the worldwide depression of the 1930s, demand for the region‟s primary products plummeted, unemployment soared and poverty spread. Investment were made in the urban-industrial sector and caused massive rural-urban migration. Cities grew in an unprecedented rate.  Despite the fact of socioeconomic segregation, national governments throughout South America continued to finance costly development, especially industrialization and infrastructure, through borrowing on foreign capital markets.  By the early 1980s, the global economy had experienced a series of unanticipated shocks that would devastate urban life within the heavily indebted countries of South America. The IMF forced countries to exercise extreme fiscal restraint at every level of national life, in order to build up state revenue for debt service and eventual repayment.  This precipitated a sustained period of deep recession and development reversal. This gave rise to the phenomenon of urban growth without economic growth and to unprecedented urban poverty. 2 Compare and contrast cities of Eastern and Western Europe. Focus in particular on urban form differences and similarities Introduction: European cities reveal the history of many different economic, political, social, and technological systems (feudalism, socialism and capitalism). They are representative cities to understand the landscape of urbanization elsewhere as the hearth area of urban design. Cities across Europe do share many characteristics, including bustling city centers, high density, and compact form, fundamental differences remain in terms of land-use-patters, quality of urban infrastructure, municipal governance, level of retail facilities and city planning and architectural design Thesis: After WWII, a boundary divides Europe into a capitalist West and a communist East. However, most of the countries in Eastern Europe follow the capitalist after the fall of Soviet Union. Historical Influence  The Classic period  Greek civilization  Independent city-states were located mainly along coastlines in early Greek culture.  Roman Empire  Roman cities were established mainly inland and functioned as command and control centers  The Medieval Period  Most development during the medieval period was in the western and southern portions of Europe, which had a Roman heritage of city building. Urban development was impeded in the areas of southeastern Europe that were under the control of the Byzantine Empire. Most of eastern remaining a pre-urban state  Renaissance and Baroque Periods  This period makes a significant changes in the economic system (feudalism to capitalism), in the political system (rise of the nation-state) and in art and philosophy. These changes generally spread throughout western Europe; however feudalism was still going strong in eastern Europe  Eg. France and Spain – both cities were given further impetus for growth.  Industrial Period  Whole districts of factory building emerged. Development after WWII Western Cities  Cities in Western Europe cultivated connections with the capitalist world, especially with the US. The reconstruction effort was seen as an opportunity to replan bombed-out urban areas  In the late 1960, the process of counterurbanization or metropolitan decentralization led to rapid development in suburban areas and nearby towns, whereas growth slowed in the inner cities. Peripheral areas attracted residents and business looking for more space and less pollution and crime  There is a strong demand of labor for the rebuilding in Western Europe, rural to urban migration fueled growth. Foreign-born guestworkers came from colonies were brought in to fill low-wage jobs. They lived in poor-quality housing or enclaves which were dominated by a certain ethnic groups.  Deindustrialization led to massive job losses and urban decline in traditional centers of industry. Economy is shifter to a more service base. Medium-sized cities have attracted employment in expanding sectors of the economy  Population was redirected from the large congested cities to new towns. However, declining population growth and widespread economic recessions forced national governments in Western Europe to reassess the need for new town planning. Government redirected strategies toward “community empowerment” in which local communities carry out revitalization programs and projects that are sensitive to local challenges and opportunities. Eastern Cities  Cities in eastern Europe develo
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