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Exam study Notes Lecture 5Environmental Biophysical ImpactsReadingsSpatial patterns of tour ship traffic in the Antarctic Peninsula Region o Table1Tourism affects and the wildlife o Ship travels potential impact on the wild life Disruption of marine wildlife eg Penguins sealswhalestravelling between breeding colonies and feeding aresUnder water noise pollution Degradation of environment from cumulative disposal or discharge of sewagespreading or introducing nonnative speciesitems accidently going overboardcollection with wildlifenature during night travel o Small boats potential impact Disruption of wildlife3Under water noise pollution o Landing operationsStress to wildlifeDisruption to breeding activities Items being dropped into water Impact on the terrainUneven distribution of travel cruise boatsManagement has the ability to unintentionally push to either one extreme scenarioseither pushing to all tourism tohoneypot spots or pushing tourism to all spots with no one being unvisitedNegative impact due to uneven distribution 2 o frequent visitation of particular environmental may cause cumulative affect due to sensitive sitesstress on wildlife in those particular areao Loss of wild life at heavy visited sites it may impact both environmentvisitor Positive impact3 o Easier to manage activities at smaller numb3er of heavily visited sites with guidelines for the crew memberstourist it will minimize disturbance to sites o Any impacts to the resident wildlife are restricted to a small fraction of the total peninsula wide populationo Concentration of tourism activities will necessarily concentrate marine traffic patternsGuidelines were placed on popular sitevoluntary restrictions is workingnumber of visitors is decreasing but needs to be monitor to make sure it is workingNone of all the other sites saw a decrease in visitation Hannah point is exclusive case with much heavier distractive guidelines than other sitesExtension of tourism season increasing possible due to climate changespreading out visitation Environmental paradox of recreational and tourismWe are attracted to the environmental but we damage them as the same time when it is damaged we are no longer attracted to them What is an environmental impact Change in environmental conditions attributed to tourismdifficult to doimpacts can be positive or negativeEnvironmental impacts tourismex Global climate changeFrame work for examining environmental impacts Attractiontype and scalelook at the chart Problems with measuring impactsMostly reactivewe dont know how the place is before tourism No well established baseline hard to determine what changes have been taken place Numerous environmental parameterswhich to use Spatial and temporal discontinuitiesTime lag stressimpact The stress occurs at the beginning of the water stream pollution but the impact is at another location Water quality changes falls down stream making those connections when there are those spatial discontinuity very challenging May not always see environmental impacts right awaysometimes it shows 510 years down the roadTime LagCauseEffect RelationshipHow can you tell its from tourismDetermining is very challenging to compare tourism activitylocal people Sometimes its local population that is causing it Or the local population has been influenced by visitors and it changed their way of life which is affecting the environment Environmental Impacts3 Major areas of concernResource uses physical resources Physical development to accommodate tourism o Airport developmentemployment o Airport developmentloss of land habitat loss agricultural land lossindirect affectlocal people depending on imported food very costly suffering when employment is loss life could be much worse than before tourism Fresh Water usehigh traffic of tourismwater system every highdemand very high as wello Tourist putting their normal water usage into developing cities it puts a strain on the local population Study 15000 cubic metre watercan supply for luxury guest for 55 days or 100 rural farmer for 3 years or rural families for 2 years It shows that tourist water usagelocal people water usage is extremely different Human Behaviour the touristtheir mentality touristlocal behaviorlocal people starts collecting things to sell to tourist Wild life reviewing bird watchingwhale watching wild lifecan impact even if being passiveo Breeding behaviorfeedings of the animals being watched stress on the animals we are watchingPlants can be impactedpeople collecting them or walking over themSpreading exotic plantsaround other areas Pollution are water land noiseaesthetic Air pollutionlocal impactexhausted to global scaletourism contribution to global change Waterstrain on sewage system
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