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GGR100H concise midterm review

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University of Toronto St. George
Sarah Finkelstein

GEO REVIEW MIDTERM  Electromagnetic radiation is emitted by all matter with a temperature above 0 k  Stefan-Boltzmann Law Energy = CT^4, NRG is in watts, C is a constant  Aphelion = away = summer / Perihelion = winter = closest  Humans emit all sorts of wavelengths / light bulb one wavelength  UV radiation caught by ozone layer O3 catches UV into molecular bond  Solstices every third month  march 21, June 21 … etc  Equinox is 12 hours of sun and dark everywhere, two equinoxes spring + fall  sun is dead on in center of equator  Troposphere  Stratosphere  Mesosphere  Thermosphere  Aerosols are tiny droplets that reflect radiation. Such as SO2 that came from mountain and cooled Earth by reflection of incoming SW radiation  Snow reflects radiation, Forests generally absorb the radiation  Outgoing LW radiation trapped by clouds, gases, dust  Greenhouse effect raises temperatures by 33degC  Radiative transfer radiation loss to space and greenhouse effect  Non radiative transfer  1. Sensible heat (can feel it) 2. Latent heat (water evaporates)  31 % SW reflected / 45% SW to ground / LW leaving is 69% balances to 0  Thermal equator is the highest heated area, so generally closer to north less water  Albedo outgoing/incoming … Unitless  The highest temperature isn’t at noon because the net radiation is still positive thus the Earth is still warming, only when net LW radiation loss passes net SW radiation gain that the temperature starts to go down.  UHI Urban Heat Island Effect 1) Black asphalt 2) more conductive surfaces 3) interruption of wind and evaporative cooling by buildings 4) pollution 5) power usage that releases heat  Mitigations green rooftops, more water, reduce energy usage  Temperature  molecules in motion  Thermometer  uses alcohol or mercury so it doesn’t freeze at 0, grows when heated, shrinks when cooled.  Temperature 1) Latitude 2) elevation 3) clouds (day  colder (abledo forcing)/ night  warmer (greenhouse forcing)) 4) land-water heating differences (one faster / one slower) 5) surface characteristics  Barometer to measure pressure with mercury (pressure makes it go up the tube)  Primary circulation  Hadley Secondary circulation  contental air mass Tertiary circulation (local winds)  Zonal  latitude / meridonal flow  longitude  Wind flows parallel to isobars in upper troposphere  Wind speed and directions 1) gravity 2) pressure gradient 3) coriolis force 4) friction  Condensation nuclei process gas  to liquid for rain  Diurnal temperature is the difference of temp between day and night  Chinoki wind  goes down a mountain  katabatic winds  Cold/salty water sinks because dense  Jet streams  high up in troposphere (geostrophic winds) control low pressure systems  Land sea breezes it’s a cycle where wind goes CW day time, CCW at night (island on left)  Ocean currents driven by surface winds and coriolis force etc. Have 1000 year cycles 
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