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University of Toronto St. George
Jason Hackworth

Chapter 1 World Urban Development Key Urban Facts Total World Population 200565 billion Percent Urban Population4815 Total Urban Population315 billion Most Urbanized Countries 100NauruSingapore Least Urbanized CountriesBurundi 10Bhutan 111Annual Urban Growth Rate 20002005 is 204 20052010 is 196 Number of Megacities 20 Number of cities more than a million 414 Top 3 largest agglomerations Tokyo 352millionMexico City 194million New York 183million World Cities 50 Global Cities 3 New York London TokyoKey Chapter ThemesUrban ecology is based on the premise that cities and humans are not separate from nature and therefore must be considered in the study of ecosystemsThis is an ecosystems approach to studying the cityUrban political ecology differs from urban ecology in that the focus lies in understanding how political institutions mediate the interaction between humans and the environment in city settings Main concern of this ecology is the management and conservation of nature in citiesUrban sustainability studies recognize the need for economic social and environmental sustainability in humandominated urban environments eg consumption flow charts to increase awarenessUrban greening is an approach targeting the redevelopment of green spaces and corridors for multiple species wildlife humans within the city largely in recognition of their benefit to human communitiesMarxian urban political ecology makes a strong commitment to understanding inequality and how power and injustice are created around urban nature in sites of capitalist urbanization eg uneven green spaces in neighbourhoods of differing racial compositionsUrbanism is a broad concept that generally refers to all aspectspolitical economic socialof the urban way to life Urbanism is not a process of urban growth but rather the end result of urbanization It suggests that the urban way of life is dramatically different in all respects from the rural way of life Urbanization is a process involving two phases1 the movement of people from rural to urban places where they engage in primarily nonrural occupations 2 the change in lifestyle that results from leaving the country side The important variables that go with each are 1 population density and economic functions A place does not become urban in fact until its workforce is divorced from the soil 2 Social psychological and behavioural eg as population becomes increasingly urban for instancefamily size becomes smallerUrban place is when a place increases in population to the point that its economy is no longer tied to agriculture at that point a rural places becomes an urban placeCity is essentially a political designation referring to a large densely populated place that is legally incorporated as a municipality However a settlement of any size may call itself a city Towns are generally smaller than cities Megacity is designated for the largest urban places a city with more than 10 million inhabitants can be called a megacity Urbanized area is defined as a builtup area where buildings roads and essentially urban land uses predominate even beyond the political boundaries of cities and towns An urbanized area can be considered as a city and its suburbsConurbation is when urbanized areas merge the larger urban regions called conurbations eg DallasFort Worth urban areaWorld Cities function as the commandandcontrol centers of the world economy They offer advanced knowledgebased producer services The toptier cities defined by their financial centrality are called global cities of which there are three New York London and Tokyo One rung lower are the secondtier cities Paris Frankfurt Los Angeles Chicago Hong Kong and Singapore among others Even cities such as Mecca and Jerusalem may be termed world cities because their influence is felt worldwide with particular religious niches Metropolis is loosely used today to refer to any large cityMetropolitan area is anchored by a city large enough to be considered a metropolis It includes a central city plus all surrounding territoryurban or ruralthat is integrated with the urban core In the US they are officially termed MAs of which there are 3 types Metropolitan Statistical Areas MSAs Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas PMSAsand Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas CMSAsMegalopolis today is used as a generic term referring to urban coalescence of metropolitan areas at the regional scale This coalescence is channelled along transportation corridors connect one city with another eg Texas Triangle
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