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Midterm

Notes for first midterm

8 pages88 viewsWinter 2011

Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR100H1
Professor
Joseph Leydon
Study Guide
Midterm

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GGR 216 - Global Cities
January 19th 2011
Cities of Middle American and the Caribbean
-Relatively small cities
-Port orientation
-Low rates of industrialization
-High concentrations of rural populations
-Palpable legacies of imperialism
-Current emphases on tourism, services and offshore banking
-High rates of informal economic activity
Internally varied Urban Structure
-large, old, internal highland cities (Mexico city, Guatemala City, San Salvador)
-Tourist areas along the coast of Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama
-Industrial towns in Northern Mexico
-These all highlight the variety of urban areas that cater to much more diverse but
specific industries than a North American city
Middle America
-Less of a port emphasis than in the Caribbean
-Spanish influence of grid surrounding square is more pronounced (more later)
-A great deal of change in the past 50 years - tourism, resources (oil), industry
Measuring Urbanization
-Cities can be based on population density and non agricultural employment, but it
varies per country, this exemplifies different ideologies of cities in this area
-Consider differences in density between Barbados and Canada
-Consider the difference of activities on the fringe of cities (Caribbean vs N. America)
the GTA and just outside of it for example is still under the sphere of influence of
Toronto and also contributes to the work force and economic activity of the city.
Commuters come from all over to the central core for work and play alike.
-Rural to urban migration in Middle America more typical of developing regions
elsewhere in the world
Primate and Megacities
-primate cites: at least 2 time as large as next largest
-Megacities: generally over 10 million in pop
-Mexico City is only megacity in a region
-Primacy it pronounced in certain countries but not usual for size of islands and “stage
of development
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Legacies of Colonization
Palimpsest - a manuscript that has been erased and re-written many times, cities are
just like this, they are relics of the past and their history is built upon its previous
structures
-street patterns designed by colonial powers
-Architecture- particularly churches and government buildings
-Patterns of land ownership and relic (often exploitive) economic relationships
Urban Form
-includes the planned and the unplanned
-Classic model by Griffin and Ford (1980)
-In Latin American countries the wealthiest usual live close to the core of the city, unlike
most N. American cities, this is because of the prevalence of utilities, on the outskirts of
some of these cities, in poorer areas, electricity, sewage and water may not be fully
available
-Also safety may influence the richer being closer to the core or the CBD
-Followed by others that emphasize hybridity and even chaos
-Fundamental point: cities of Central America and Caribbean are characterized by this
tension (between planned structure and informality)
Assignment 1 - due Feb 1st
My TA***
Victor Short : TA for surnames: Silva and Zoumot
-- Office SS 615; Time: Thursday 10am-11am - victor.short@utoronto.ca
Choose the fastest growing city and the slowest growing city in that country that you choose
........................................................................................................................................................................
.....
January 26, 2011
Latin American Cities
- Total pop: 374 million (81.6 % urban)
- Most urbanized (Venezuela, Uruguay, Argentina)
- Lest urbanized (Paraguay, Ecuador, Bolivia) even these are still fairly urbanized (60 %
ranged)
- 3 Megacities and 38 over 1 million
-Recent and rapid urbanization
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Important themes from the chapter
-understanding this region
-Important historical moments
-Social mix and economic polarization
-Informal economy
-Debt crisis
-Urban form
Understanding the region
Very complicated place
3 distinct spheres with a great dealk of internal carnation:
Andean Cities - North western area - by the Andes (much more isolated) lowest
percentage of European settlers, higher number of Chinese and Japanese
Southern cone cities -
Brazil - its two megacities were initially slave centers and military outposts when the
Portuguese first settled
Important Historical Moments
-incredible indigenous urbanization - relics from ancient societies, Aztecs and Incas and
still have some roots of their people living today
-Treaty of Tordesillas - between portuguese and the Spanish to divide up Latin America,
portuguese got the short end of the stick
-Laws of the Indies and the enduring Spanish influence - a series of decrees
implemented by the Spanish:
-The major one being one of land division for urban form. A number of cities were built
based on specific models, such as containing a grid form, and a central square.
-Debt crisis (more on this later)
Social Mix and Polarization
-region is marked by extreme juxtaposition of wealthy and poor, often along ethnic lines
-Important patterns:
-Afro-Brazilian pop in Brazil - source is based on the slave importation by the
Portuguese. The are over-represented in the poorer regions within Rio
-Indigenous pop throughout the continent, esp in the Andes
-Small Euro-elite in most countries (large ones in southern cone)
-Mix is often rigidly segregated
Informal Economy
-regular employment for many of the regions poor is elusive; many public spaces are
dominated by informal retailers - much crime and other means of obtaining money
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