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Exam Review Lecture 4.pdf

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Charles Z Levkoe

Exam Review Lecture 4 o Understanding Agri-Ecosystems o Agriculture: the production of “useful” crops o Agri-ecosystem: the interaction between humans and the environment o Key points of chapter 3 • Relatively open human modified systems: bringing in a lot of seed input and fertilizers • Physical environment fundamental to agriculture BUT economic, political, socio-cultural and marketing are important in explaining farming systems o Environmental constraints • Access to amount of solar energy • Temperature • Water availability • Soil characteristics o Depth o Texture o Acidity • Soil nutrients • Inherent biological characteristics of plants o Soil formation • Long process that takes up about 500 years • Underlying rock can be broken down by erosion • Factors that cause this could be climate organism, parent material, time o Soil texture • Loam is the best has a mixture of silt, sand and clay • Can determine different types of soils based on particle size, density • Sand is the biggest, silt is inbetween and clay is the smallest o Soil acidity • Different amounts of acidi ty for different plants o Soil nutrients • Primary macronutrients : nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium’ • Secondary macronutrients: calcium, magnesium and sulphur • Micronutrients: boron, copper, iron, chloride, manganese, molbdenium and zinc o Human alterations to t he agri-ecosystem • Control energy: increase amount of light, reduce the amount of shading • Control temperature: greenhouses • Control water: irrigation • Change soil characteristics: soil addictives (ex. Garden soil in a bag, compost, tilling) •
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