Exam Study Notes - Urbanization
Few key things in this process:
1. Displacement of lower income groups who can no longer afford to live in these areas. These
lower income groups are often immigrants or racialized groups.
2. Usually involves a upper class of gentriﬁers (people who are part of the gentriﬁcation process,
usually white upper class people)
3. Requires architecturally valuable housing.
4. These neighbourhoods are located in central city locations, close to, but not in, the local
Race! and Ethnicity
Race and Racialization
Marker of difference based on phenotypical colours.
System of classification based on these differences with value judgements based on social, economic, political and
Naturalness of race is reproduced:
Discursively and structurally: Policies, Practices in law are created so exclude certain groups.
Structures and institutions: maintain socioeconomic differences within groups, naturalizes exclusion and indirectly
Resurfaces in new guises:
- Homeland indirectly enforces xenophobia and Islamaphobia.
- Different to race because it's about the individuals origin not physical features.
Race and Space
- Cities mirror assumptions of race, through the presence of exclusionary communities.
- Urban Segregation - Popularized by the Chicago School, difference in groups and species began to produce
segregated communities. Differentiation from a dominant group based on: race, ethnicity and class.
- The resulting spatial patterns - Ethnic communities, gated communities and ghettos.
- The perceived difference between groups
- Based on perceived divisions of ethnicity and race.
- Expecting people to be the same is problematic.
Vaughn, Toronto CMA
Islamophobia takes place because people don't recognize the being Muslim is more hetereogenous than people think.
There's a lot of range within the Muslim community, a lot of diversity, but when we racialize a group we treat them Exam Study Notes - Urbanization
the same. Leading to hate crimes. Only similarity amongst Muslims is that When Muslims move to Canada, there is
likely to be a settlement community near a Mosque.Alot of decentralization.
Peace Village - 1980s Pak government ruled that the ammani faith was no longer recognized as Muslims, they
feared their safety and moved to Canada. With land available, it was purchased by the community and a Mosque was
built there. In 1990s, the idea came to create a self-serving community around the Mosque. Houses were built
culturally sensitive to Islamic needs, streets named after their leaders names, self-serving community with a strip
mall employing individuals from the community.
Suburban enclaves situated out side urban Toronto, it has transnational business with people residing around them,
Places where people work and live, transnational work.
- Urban migration: the movement of mass numbers of people from rural to urban areas because of the promise of
economic opportunities. However there are only a certain number of opportunities.
- Urban poverty: increase in population also increases the informal labour market which puts people at risk for
- Globalization: Increasing connectedness between places, the increasing movement of people due to increased
Diverse Migration patterns
People are moving for work, asylum, business class, family reunification.
Migration is transnational
People are moving to areas where they can maintain their ethnicity/culture, still connected to their home country.
Settling in a way that isn't just about one place, people are connected to multiple places. These places become more
connected as a result.
The State and International Migration
- Promote out migration - Push - Repressive government, Weak economy, Social Institutions are weak, Racial/Ethnic
- Attract Migrants - Pull - Economic opportunity, Safety/Freedom, Social Institutions.
- Why settle in the city - Social Capital (having resources within the community, networks) Housing market, higher
- Race Restriction/European Selection - Would be able to better assimilate/apart of the dominant culture.
- Exclusionary policies (Chines Head Tax = Pay to enter Canada from 50-500, Continuous Journey = Indians had to
make a nonstop journey to enter Canada) Exam Study Notes - Urbanization
- Market forces determine migration - Tap ON/Tap OFF - Open the doors when the economy is good, but close the
doors to immigration when the economy is bad.
Modes of Incorporation
Assimilation - Best described by the concentric zone
- Shedding culture, language and behaviours
- Segregation and Social Distance
- Eventual Suburbanization
- Encouraged integration, in which ethnicity and culture is respected.
- Recognizes rights to maintaining culture and community while allowing full participation in society,
- Two-Way Process - Give and Take - Expect the landscape to be constantly changing but at the same time people
will be able to be apart of their home culture.
Economic Integration of immigrants.
Macro-Perspective: Concentric Zone Model
Ernest Burgess - Immigrants move into the ‘Zone in Transition’ and then once they become more
accustomed to the area, they move into the ‘Zone of Workingmen’s Homes.’
Micro-Perspective: Invasion-Succession Model
The penetration of a few minority families with socio-economic resources move into a neighbourhood with
an established group. Then a larger group of the ethnic minority members move into the neighbourhood
and the established group moves out.
Spatial Assimilation Perspective - Process to achieving full integration among immigrants.
Place Stratiﬁcation Perspective - Locations are associated with resources, prestige and status.
Segregation is imposed
- Often voluntary. Ex. Little Italy, Chinatown.
- Homogenous. Similar groups live in these areas
- Central in the city slowly moving out to the suburbs
- Often dispersal and relocation
- Often involuntary. Exam Study Notes - Urbanization
- Homogenous. Similar groups live in these areas.
- Central city.
- Persistence: a cycle of deprivation. Future generation will live there.
- Visible manifestations of social poverty in the developing world.
- Lack of basic services: education, health care, social benefits
- Substandard housing
- Social Exclusion
Social Exclusion - Syndrome and issues of poverty, employment, housing, health and limited access to
facilities and services cause inequality.
Neo-Liberal Governance - Prioritize cutbacks in social welfare, downsizing and privatizing public space
and services, and the treatment of citizens as customers.
Central Business District
- CBD - symbol of progress and afﬂuence in the city, shopping districts - retail came to
dominate, pay higher rent but proﬁt more to due location near CBD. Downtown ofﬁce
districts - housed in pedestrian part of the city, gives the city part of its infrastructural
look, where ofﬁce district located, CN tower or Sears Tower.
- Out skirts of the CBD will have a warehouse zone. Spatial organization of the CBD -
local variability makes each CBD look different, but the structure of the CBD within the
city remains the same.
Sector model - Organizes city around CBD in sectors instead of rings.
- Brings transportation to bear on the model
- Wedges instead of concentric rings
- Central Business District (CBD-market) is still at core of model (Hoyt)
The Social Construction of Nature
Ideas are created by and in society.
Use of symbols to create meaning, space is not a given concept.
We construct and define space and then impose these ideas on other cultures.
Deterministic aspect of nature, describes nature as untouched from humans and humans have to adapt to Exam Study Notes - Urbanization
Pre-disposed with certain charateristics to survive their environment. - Environmental Determinism.
Nature-Urban are co-constructions, when we produce ideas of the urban, we also produce ideas of nature.
Power and Money used to naturalise the value and importance of certain landscapes.
Good nature is the value of natural landscapes, attributed to good health.
Bad nature is not a valuable part of nature, unidealistic aspects.
Nature as passive - humans act upon nature, extract, consume and control it. Scenic views.
Nature as actors - Plays a role in changing and shaping social processes.
The Chicago School of Urban Sociology
Study of biology and ecology legitimized the study
Science over nature became a way to justify modern thinking, nature becoming a credible science.
Invasion and Succession
Created a notion about how the city ought to be, combing the best aspects of cities and good nature.
Can allow for less access to transportation and safety, increase in crime
Nature and the City: Parks
Spaces of Exclusion: Classist and elitist culture, exposure to the right kind of nature would create a sense of moral
goodness. Racially segregated.
Park space became the consciousness of the city.
Urban China is about scale, speed and spectacle.
Radical change is space between the rural and the urban.
China's urbanization is its own and the worlds environmental problem.
To address it international agents and China's officials are working to reduce this.
Shanghai Industrial Investment Corporation +Arup = Dongtan - Planned to build the world's first eco city.
As technology increases our relationship with spaces changes, globalization is a new concept - is
about increasing connectedness with places and connecting economic, political and cultural
activities, facilitated by the movement of people and technology. Makes it possible to trade ideas
Globalization and Geography Exam Study Notes - Urbanization
- Global capital/investment can be traded/exchanged across cities
- Do not use globalization as an agent, it is a process.
- Geographers think of the global as a scale
- Globalization as the process
- Processes of change are affected by nations and regions interacting on the world stage as well
as companies and activists
-Increasing connectedness of economies
- Freer movement of capital/trade
- Increasing connectedness of firms (Multi-national corporations (MNCs))
- New trade agreements remove previously protecting barriers
- National sovereignty is diminished in the face of ‘free-flowing capital’
Presence of MNC allows to incorporate other countries into global economy, reinforcing
centralized control in global economy.
Controlled by larger countries, emergence of trade agreements, relieving barries of trading.
Country would benefit from taxes from the ownership of that corporation - Mnc's are usually
Dimishing state power in favour of free flowing capital, progress of global economy causes
countries to lose or limit their abilities in controlling the country.
- MNCs are increasingly influencing cultural practices
- Cultures becoming heterogenous, gain from places where we never could extract global goods
- Cultures becoming homogenous, being watered down by Western cultures, assimilation/melting
- Economy is about producing cultural goods for mass consumption. Exam Study Notes - Urbanization
- Spread of political networks, democratic political systems normalized, communist systems
being integrated in world markets/capitalist markets - China/Russia.
- Occur at the Urban level, against the economic ramifications of how the city is affected by the
Imperial Cities> Colonized cities - controlled - Political
Primate Cities> Disproportionately large city relative to other cities in that country. Central/
significant - Political
Mega Cities> Have at leat 10 million people - Demographic
Great Industrial Cities> Historically industrial cities/ hub of production - Economic
Millionaire Cities> larger portion of millionaires in comparison to other cities - Economic
Global Capitalist Cities> Draw on the economies of newly industrializing cities, benefiting from
international division of labour. - Economic
International Financial Centres> Linked to other financial centres - Economic
World Cities> Functional Economic and Political SystemsApproach
Global Cities> Functional Economic and Political SystemsApproach
Defining the World cities
- Cosmopolitan characteristics and multinational corporate economies Exam Study Notes - Urbanization
- The new international division of labour
- The internationalization, concentration and intensity of producer services
- International financial centres
The Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Research Network
- Morally wrong: privileging economic cities, alpha, beta and gamma.
Cultural and Symbolic Economy
- Adopting architecture to be recognized as a world city
- Element of cultural elitism that world cities are starting to abide by, rather than just economic.
- Frank Gehry = World city
Social Distance (perceived distance based on race, religion, sexuality, etc.) and Imposed segregation (Not able to
select residential locations, inhibited by ethnic and racial backgrounds -AfricVille and whites in suburbs)
Congregation and self-imposed segregation (Ethnic enclaves - peace village, and ethnoburbs - richmond hill)
Gentrification and displacement - working class neighbourhood to an upper class one.
Affordable housing and public housing - Effects the geography of immigrant settlements
In geography, critical to talk about the differences between home and house, key differences include: House is
physical, locateable, whereas, home is more personal, span in multiple locations, associated more with loved ones
rather than a dwelling.
Concentric Zone model by the Chicago school - social organization of the urban.
Urban Ecology by Murdie - Organized social space as ethnic, family, economic status and physical space.
Murdie argued that economic status has sectoral patterns, family status has zonal effect (concentric zone matters
when you have a family), ethnic status has clustered effects. He's saying that the Chicago model makes sense, but
you have to see this in a 3D way, not created equally as it is all dependent on identity, family and income.
Affordability - More than 30% on housing = core housing stress, 50% of income on housing = critical housing
Adequacy - Is it substandard, need repairs, many in Toronto face this issue.
Suitability - Size of the dwelling match the occupants, bedrooms and washrooms. Exam Study Notes - Urbanization
Safety - Feminist addition to housing stress, sexuality or domestic abuse, can occur in the community at large, not
just the dwelling.
Housing Tenure Arrangement
Housing Type - Detached houses, etc.
Freehold - Both land and structure are owned.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation - Addresses housing inequalities
Inclusionary Zoning - Set of planning ordinances that require a given share of new construction to be
Exclusionary Zoning - Exclude affordable housing from a municipality through the zoning code.
Supportive Housing - for the elderly and mentally ill, and Harm-Reduction Housing - for the under-
housed and drug dependent.
Marginal Spaces - Neglected urban areas
Prime Spaces - More desirable spaces
SRO (Single Room Occupancy) Hotels - Low-Cost Housing
Low-Income Cut-Off (LICO)
Gentriﬁcation - Reduced the amount of affordable housing available for low-income households.
NIMBYism to Business Improvement Districts (BIDs)
Homelessness - Ranges fromAbsolute to Relative/Hidden
Absolute - visible poverty, people living on the streets/shelter systems, basic needs not met and no identity,
Hidden - Cusp of absolute homelessness, spending more than 30% on housing. Marked by substandard housing,
landlord abuse, living paycheck to paycheck. Government doesn't see this as an issue, much more important to have
affordable housing rather than just the bandaid approach of shelters. Exam Study Notes - Urbanization
- Financial barriers
- Micro: Primary and Secondary
- Primary - based on attributes you cannot change about yourself
- Secondary - based on attributes that can change
Responses to Homelessness
Accommodative - Caretaker agencies and individuals provide aid/patient care for client.
Restorative - Treatment oriented, rather than sustenance.
Exploitative - Market oriented, little concern for their well-being.
Exclusionist - Displacing and Exclusionary approach.
- Industrialization played a key role in the spatial organization of the city,
- Industrial city situated in a location because of resources,
- Gave rise to a distinct system of social classes
- Industrialization prompted innovation and technology, so we began to see the creation of the
suburbs, and the reorganization of land use.
Pre - Industrial city - The Mercantile City - 1790-1840 - Model for much of NorthAmerican
cities, cities began to build anAmerican identity, rural>Urban Migration + International
Migration. Lack of transportation was critical to the organization of the city.
Pedestrian city, compact city with distinct land use patterns, little separation between work and
home and rich and poor.
- Historical and economic contexts influence spatial organization
- The Pedestrian City
- Central core with residences for social elite
- Poor live in back alleys and periphery of city
The (Early) Industrializing City Exam Study Notes - Urbanization
- Industrial technology and methods of industrial and commercial organization
- Agricultural mechanization
- Rural to urban migration
- International migration
- Land use competition - No zoning laws so development is haphazard
- Land speculation begins
- Buy property, sell some of it, keep the rest of it undeveloped until prices go up, then sell
land at an inflated cost
- Specialization of land use
- Generalized housing market
- Network infrastructures + transportation networks
- Centrifugal Movement: To the outskirts for affluent families of white collar workers
- Centripetal Movement: To the centre for industries that benefit from agglomeration
- Hierarchy came into prominence more
- Farmers could produce more yield for more people, however, rural dwellers increased in
- Cities increased, along with rural unemployment in Europe increased and Immigration to North
- Produced/created a division of social classes.
- Social classes created segregatio