GGR124 EXAM study sheet

10 Pages
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Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR124H1
Professor
Dr.Silvia D' Addario

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Description
Part 1: Definitions (4) Definition words: - Define words - 2 of the following: o CBD, *Segregation*, Export Processing Zone, Urban Nature [2 of them] ▯ Central Business District (CBD): - hub of economic and social activity (greatest econ activ) located at centre of the industrial city [1870s – 1920s] o characterized by shopping districts & office districts ▪ office districts give CBD its landmark designation • look of progress & affluence (tall, large buildings) ▪ warehouse zones were assigned and were located @ edge • near railroads & merchants ▪ city halls and civic pride buildings were also in CBD - downtown development initiated by local govt. - Chicago School of Urban Ecology [1915 – late 1960s] by Park and Burgess used concentric ring model to show CBD o the CBD is located @ the center and is surrounded by 5 concentric zones o central core controls and organizes surrounding urban pop'n (Hiller, 2007) o deterioration takes place near city core (bc of industrial activity) while prosperity in outskirts (suburbs & the rich middle class located) o spatial assimil takes place @ center since Eur. immigrants would have settled near there bc of jobs ▯ Segregation: (e.g. Africville – Hannigan, p. 238; New Orleans – Zuberi, p. 116; Regent Park) - urban process of differentiation between groups based on race or ethnicity - creates social distance that results in distinct spatial patterns of ethnic communities o slums and ethnic communities - Popularized byChicago School of Sociology [1920s] o CCS attempted to explain how spatial features of urban envir. influence its organization and experience (Hannigan, 2010, p.44) o Concentric Zone Model by Burgess(Fong, p.145) used to describe city residential patterns and immigration adaptation process ▪ new immigrants come and are segregated and slowly assimilate into society - Voluntary o immigrants moving directly to ethnic communities – which will contribute to economic and social support for them (Lec 09) o Example includes Peace Village – a community made up of Ahmaddiya people o Markham and Richmond Hill where Chinese immigrants have integrated to society and created thriving businesses (Pacific Mall) to support the ethnic population – also an example of transnationalism (pps maintain own culture while adopting lifestyle of host country) - Involuntary: o often associated w. racial discrimination and exclusion ▪ measures often emphasize social classes and assimilation o E.g. Africville, Nova Scotia [1850s – 1970s] ▪ E.g. of systemic discrimination where African Cdns were segregated from whites living in Halifax • town was defined as slum and was continually neglected by authorities (lack of infrastructure & support) o no paved roads o poor education facility ▪ students eventually sent to racially integrated schools o dump yard in close proximity o water and sewer facilities not installed ▪ town was designated industrial site & residences were demolished despite opposition from residents • residents used it for social support of each othr ▪ Residents were displaced to adjacent Halifax w. little support • residents got little $ for moving o had to pay rent whereas once lived mortgage free o belongings hauled on dump trucks • dismantled sense of community Export Processing Zone: - type of Free Trade Zone set up by developing country govts. to promote industrial and commercial imports of items - incentives: tax free services + business regulation o services include administrative services - problems: labor environment o no unions + little benefits (health) o dangerous working conditions o poor wages and little to no pay for overtime o workplace violence/abuse + threats against union organization - Eg. Honduras o young women w. little experience work o labor market has less than minimum wage + overtime o poor working conditions + threats against union organization o Eg. of globalization where majority of clothing made for leading brands such as Springfield, Nike, etc. - EPZs are an eg. of over urbanization in G.South (D'Addarop, 2013) o large population density in cities ensures high level of poverty ▪ people don't get work and have to live in slums – Rio De Janeiro (D'Addario, 2013) o in G. South, EPZs are characterized by poor underdeveloped transportation systems in contrast to the transportation systems in G.North in general ▯ Urban Nature: - is a socially constructed space that challenges environ. determinism within the confines of a city - nature is used as a tool of social power (Bryson, 2013) o serve elite at the expense of marginalized populations (E.g. Idaho city – Bryson) o park spaces historically were known to be used as a tool for segregation (D'Addario, 2013) ▪ created to expose public to 'right kind of nature' but became constructed space ▪ Elites (upper white class) had their own parks separate from the Blacks o at present, park space used for civic pride but also to deter homeless from soliciting, etc. - E.g. Central Park, NY city (D'Addario, 2013) o spaces designed to exclude populations and in process of gentrification, slums had to be cleared out (key concepts in urban geog) - Urban Nature is used as a tool by powerful groups to redevelop the city arguing through green policies and environmental sustainability whereas it works to reinforce the idea of segregation on the most vulnerable population (Bryson, 2013) ▯ Definition possibilities: geography, place, scale, urbanization, city*, mega city, global city*, globalization*, creative class, neoliberalism (roll back vs roll out), community, culture, garden cities*, urban citizenship, race*, ethnicity*, urban segregation, social distance, assimilation/ spatial assimilation*, slums*, ethnic enclaves*, transnationalism*, ethnoburbs, triple squeeze, vertical poverty, suburbanization* ▯ City: - distinct place of dense popn - relates local processes of social, politic, & economic to global - in Can, census defines as area w. popn of 1000 & not less than 400 pps/km 2 - Urbaniz refers to process of pps moving into/ increasing size of cities but also way of living (Hiller, 2010) ▯ ▯ Global city*/world city: - City that has heightened position as command and control centre in global economy (Hiller, 2007) - New Intl division of labour (Friedmann) o C&C center & cities work under them ▪ LDCs take on manufac & labour tasks + HQ o charac by major finan. centre, HQ for MNCs, intl institut, major transp nodes, & high popn size - classific syst used to identify – Global & world cities Rsch Network (GaWC) o Alpha-world cities (full service world cities) ▪ Alpha a++ cites are more integrated than others & have own high lvl of integration • London and New York ▪ Alpha a+ cities are other highly integrated cities that largely fill advanced service needs • Eg. Tokyo, Paris o Beta-world ▪ important world city tht link region/state to world economy • Eg. Toronto, Madrid o Gamma-world ▪ world cities tht link smaller regions/ states into world econ ▪ important world city w. less global capac (less advanced producer services) • Eg. Johannesburg, Geneva - G. cities show interconnectedness btwn urban processes - Problem: o high econ focus w. little attention to social & cultural o hide global flows of labor tht make finance possible o hides issues of control tht allows financ syst to work ▪ eg. security, surveillance, limiting protest ▯ Globalization: - process of increasing inter-connectedness of pps & places accelerated since [1980s] - characterized by econ, politic, & cultural changes - adoption of neoliberal policies (less govt interv vs. + privatised) by govt resulted in more inter-connectedness of large multi-nat corp (MNC) o new trade agreements remove prev barriers - National sovereignty diminished o cities once responsible for manufac allocate to G.South bc of cheap labor (deindus) ▪ emergence of global cities - Rise in tech since Indus Revolut [1870s – 1920s] & movement of pps explains the speed @ which global is connecting - Export Processing Zones are an excellent example of interconnectedness between people and places o EPZs serve as manufacturing zones for service oriented countries ▪ E.g. Honduras makes clothes for leading manufacturers in Global North (i.e. Springfield) ▪ Issues pertain to exploitation, labor rights, etc. ▯ Garden cities: - term coined by Ebenezer Howard - Garden cities were cities that allowed pps to enjoy the beauty of society and nature simultaneously - Many urban projects drew inspiration from idea – Regent Park ▯ Race*: - method of social classification and differentiation o creates sense of inclusion and exclusion - generalizes political and cultural differences through linking physical traits and social practises to innate immutable characteristics - compared to 'whiteness' – seen as natural & normal (value judgement) o white – free from moral blemish vs. black – tainted - reproduced through acts of exclusion and marginalization often in disguises o Canada's immigration policy – encourages multiculturalism but also integration = confusing o Geographical space is used to exclude and include populations (racialize) ▯ Ethnicity*: - a way in which people identify themselves and form groups based on their real or perceived origin (countries) - ethnicities of individuals can change once person migrates but can be primordial (pre- determined) o european = british o asian = chinese ▯ Spatial assimilation*: - process of integration o
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