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GGR124 Final Exam Notes for 2014 Dupy Class (S).docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Damian Dupuy

2014­04­23 GGR121H1-Damin Dupuy (2014/S) Lecture Notes Lecture#1 : Introduction, Concepts and Context Definitions of URBAN o Subject of much debate and disagreement o Louis Wirth (1938)- cities are large (take up space) , dense (populated), relatively permanent settlements of socially heterogeneous people o Lewis Mumford (1961)- cities were a fundamental cultural institution o Bunting and Filion (2010)- places of intense social interaction and exchange between strangers Characteristics of Urban - Urban is a dense concentration (agglomeration) of people and activities - Proximity, density, and diversity are key characteristics Distance decay: you interact less the further away you move from it • Urbanization o Shifting population balance between urban and rural areas o Proportion of the total population that is living in urban place (Census: measure population change over time, 81% of Canadian population lived in cities, has grown significantly over the last 100 yrs) • Deurbanization (reverse urbanization) o Balance is shifting towards peripheral/rural areas o Rural population growth is higher than urban population growth o Growth rates are higher in the city than of outside the city. • Urban Hierarchy o Ordering and ranking of urban place by population size or function o Can change over years o 2011, Toronto was ranked number one b.c of its diverse economic structure, diversity in culture, pop size etc • Metropolitanization o The largest urban areas are growing faster than smaller urban areas o Population is shifting up the urban hierarchy o The “greater golden horse shoe” one massive urban region • Suburbanization o Shifting population balance between suburban portions of metropolitan areas and the rest of the country o Areas on the edge of the urban core are getting larger * Urban Sprawl- density in a city. Canadian cities are more dense thanAmerican cities. Measuring Urban Places (4) • Urban places can be defined using a variety of different criteria. Example: size • Principle method used o Population  Minimum size of settlement of agglomeration  Minimum density  Relying on population alone can be problematic  Measuring the number of people who occupy a location  Canadian cities are more dense/compact than US cities o Economic base  Minimum proportion of the labour force in non-agricultural occupations (service or manufacturing)  Basic (city forming) and non-basic (city serving) goods and services.  Economic Base Theory: activities support city or allow city to grow (forming vs serving). o Administrative  Using some legal or administrative criteria  Comparative research is difficult  Physical and social extent of the city can extend far beyond the administrative responsibility o Functional  Reflect the real extent of the urban influence (how the city actually functions)  Census data expressed in terms of functional definition • Metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in the US • Census MetropolitanArea (CMA) in Canada- 147 of these in Canada o Area consisting of one or more neighboring municipalities situated around a core.A census metropolitan area must have a total population of at least 100,000 of which 50,000 or more live in the core.Acensus agglomeration must have a core population of at least 10,000. o Peel, York, Durham, Metropolitan Toronto o GTA: everything from Milton in Halton to Uxbridge in Durham o Greater golden horseshoe: takes on regions beyond halton and Durham (economic definition)  The economics region can extend into buffalo and Michigan? Understanding Urban Geography  Understand/interpret the distribution of town and cities  Account for the differences and similarities between them and within them  Two Key Themes o Spatial distribution of towns and cities-system of cities o Internal structure of the city- city as a system  Discipline is eclectic/diverse 3 Disciplines of Urban Geography  Descriptive o Recognition and description of the urban area’s internal structure-patterns and processes  Interpretive o Examining how people understand and react to these patterns and processes  Explanatory o Looks for the origins of these patterns 5Approaches on Urban Geography  Environmentalism o Dominate up to the mid 20 century o Looking at the relationship between people and their environment o Site and situation studies: physical characters determine urban development  Ex. neighbours located along a river, beach.  How does this effect social/economic processes?  Urban Morphology: how urban areas have grown and changed over time  Recent work concentrates on the production, form and design of urban areas • Analyzing evolution of the city by building types • How does change in physical form influence interactions  Positivism o General paradigm shift in the 1950’s o Human behaviour is determined or influence by scientific and universal laws o How scientific laws produced observed patterns of urban activity or form on the ground *BURGESS MODEL o 2 broad approaches of Positivism  Ecological • Human behaviour is based on ecological principles • Most powerful groups obtain the most advantageous place in a given space o Survival of the fitness/ evolution but in terms of people with wealth/income o Displace those of a lower income *diagram  Neoclassical • Driving force was rationality • Homo-economicus (economic man)- economic rationality of humans trying to get max benefits, min cost. • Cost-minimization of benefits-maximization  Behavioural and Humanistic o Emerged in the 70’s as a reaction to scientific determinism o Behavioural  Focused on decision making on human behaviour  Modeling the world o Humanistic  Deepling subjective and complex relations between individuals and groups and the places they exits • Human interpretations for where you are/sense of place  Techniques drawn from diff forms of art: film, writing, paintings • How the city is being presented  Structuralism o Broad approach in the social sciences o Importance of social, economic and political structures of society, and how they influence how cities are planned o Derived from the writing of Karl Marx o Approach was dominate in the 70’s and beyond mainly in response to social problems emerging in urban areas (esp. in US: Chicago, Boston, nick) o Criticized because of the emphasis on “class”  What is the relationship between income and class?  Postmodernism o Emerged in 80’s 90’s o Approach rejects the notion that one perspective should hold sway o Emphasizes individual differences of multiple perspectives  How do we bring different perspectives together  How do we use it to influence policy making o Most visible in urban design-Chicago, Berlin, Toronto  I.e. Marylyn Monroe towers in missasgua o Criticism is that there is an endless range of possible interpretation for the city Scales ofAnalysis in Urban Geography (Levels going from smallest to largest) • Neighbourhood o Series of city blocks o Census Track Level- plots of land • City o Center of economic and social power • Regions o Comprised of cities o Toronto as a city region o Urban sprawl- patter of housing development • National City System o What is the connection btw cities in Canada o How are these linkages organised o Funding provided to cites, therefore influence cities social and economic developments o Make decisions on where big investments go, rail infrastrcuture, air infrastructure • World System of Cities o Linkages between international cities o Toronto has stronger linkages with international cities than other Canadian cities b.c of finance, immigrants  Oshawa success or failure driven by Detroit- b.c of the auto industry i.e. ford and gm. Lecture #2: The Origins of Cities • How and why did non-agricultural settlements arise • How and why did those settlements become geographically concentrated • How and why do some of these bran settlements grow to become larger than other settlements o Oscillates • Two Key Concepts on Urban Evolution o Social Surplus  Production of basic goods (goods that are tradable) over and above what is needed for subsistence o Agglomeration  Concentration of activities, please, networks of relationships in space Appearance of non-agricultural settlements • Plots of land w. no relationships>surplus> trade and specialization happens >linkages appear between plots. We now have the potential to become a city o Trade must be managed then political class emerges- political elite, o The trade is the trigger What Generates the Social Surplus? • New Technology o Irrigation, efficient farming. • Environmental Change o Longer term climate change, water quality, soil quality o Series of flooding changing soil making it better for growth • Changes in social organization o Land reform, the use of slaves as cheap labour *Unlikely any one factor holds sway, instead more of a gradual transition Why do some settlements grow larger? • Agglomeration economies! o Economic benefits accruing to concentration of activities in space o Highways near car factories for easy transportation o Two Types of Economies  Localization- close to similar firms  Urbanization- locating in an urban environment • Shared infrastructure, shared sources of water, electricity, sewage disposal, information and media • Firms close to the city benefit from the fact that the infrastructure is already there • Information. Through fibre optic infrastructure, telecommunications. • Economies of Scale:As they get larger, cost of production falls. • Agglomeration Diseconomies Early Urban Development • First cities emerged o 4000-3000 BCE Mesopotamia, Nile Valley Indus Valley • Early cities were small 2000-20,000 o Ur 200,000 and Thebes 225,000 (Iraq and Egypt) o Probs b.c they were near water and could easily cultivates..? • Largest of eh ancient cities was Roman o Close to 1 million by 2 ad o Athens, Sparta on Greek mainland by 800 BC o Urbanism spread through Mediterranean from Greece  Spread into Greek islands- demand for land  Planned cities developed a gridiron pattern (streets heading east, west, north, south linear streets)  Medieval cities have winding streets ie Dublin o Many Roman cities had this pattern, also (roman cities in the uk like York)  Square or rectangular town perimeter 2 main cross-streets  • E-W Decumanuc • N-S Cardo • These are main intersections Found in cities like NYC and Toronto Middle Period Urbanization • Slow growth of European cities 5 -17 centuries o Decrease in spatial interaction after Roman Empire fell  ie emergence of Islamic empire and Viking expansion  Cities grown because of linkages- ie economic linkages  As the linkages broke between cities, there was a decline in the PACE of growth…small growth if anything  Urbanization doesn’t happen without linkages o Disruption of urban and rural interaction o Increased isolation  Emergence of guilds • Over time, commerce expanded function of the city- Mercantilism. o Mercantilism  Raised the poor of merchant classes as a social class, providing wealth for the city  Mechanist/traders became important people  Thus, the role of the government was to protect trade, b.c trade overall benefited the city • Power of capitalists reduced toll of the state and cities become industrial centers o Growth no longer goes to the city, but the to individuals o Social role, moving to Individual role o Leads to industrial developmentsnew technology  Industrial Revolution o Fortified cities/French Bastides/Medieval cities  MontFlaquin, Navarrenx, Issigeac  central square  Industrial and Post-Industrial Urbanization • Most significant urbanization occurred after industrial revolution mid 1700s th • 19 century cities were place of population concentration • Great Britain had the most urbanized population in the 1900s o Center of industrialization/urban growth • Cities became more specialised as a result of market forces o ie Manchester- center of cotton production NorthAmerican Urbanization • Related to the colonization by Spanish, French and English • Earliest settlements during Spanish occupation in South West- Texas,Arizona, California, New Mexico • English colonization began in 1565- th • Dutch established Fort Orange (Albany) and NewAmsterdam (new York) in the 17 century-trading posts o Colonization to exploit natural recourses to bring them back to the homeland • Quebec founded by the French in 1608 followed by Montreal in 1620 o French owned St. Lawrence river • English colonization was the shit since after 1700s th • Westward movement of population and urbanization in the 19 century • Borchert (1967) a geographer- identifies 4 key phases in the development o the NorthAmerican urban systems o Phases shaped size and location of cities, in addition to their internal structure o Internal structure of land- look at land use • Phases relate urban change to advances in technology, especially transportation Stage I 1790-1830- Frontier Mercantilism • 1790 was the first US census • Most important cities were on theAtlantic coast- NYC, Philadelphia, Boston (some medieval street scapes), Halifax o Technology or machinery moved in, natural recourses moved out o The lumber industry was to provide planks needed for British army • Cities were commercial centers • Little industry-some traditional crafts (small spatial foot print) • True “walking” cities o Little internal transportation, people walked everywhere Stage II (1830-1870) Early Industrial Capitalism • Steam technology esp. steamboat made trade possible o Going across great lakes o Allowing internal trades o Moving from NE cost, into the center • Cities that were located on rivers were important- Pittsburgh, New Orleans, Cincinnati • Internal structure of cities changed • Emergence of a CBD (central business district), and defined waterfront districts- back then, the CBD was at the waterfront o Low income housing near CBD o Identification of “carriage suburbs”  Only come people could afford carriages  Rosedale, St. George street- away from city center, but it meant you had money to live here b.c you needed a carriage to get places from here. Think of living in a suburb today. You need a car to get around. Same thing then with Rosedale, St. George, back then. Stage III (1870-1930) National Industrial Capitalism • Continent fully urbanized- Halifax to LA • Completion of railroad in 1869 • New centers emerged- Vancouver, Seattle • Greater specialization among cities • Segrated land uses instead of mixed use o Distinct CBD in highest cost location o Warehouses, factories, housing least desirable sites o Those could afford to more, moved further out of CBD o Burgess model- find a picture  Expensive housing- away from the downtown core Cheaper housing- close to downtown core   *Burguss Model Stage IV 91935-present) Mature Industrial Capitalism • General process of de -concentration and suburbanization • Rail hubs lost out to automobile and airplane o Linking cities, commercial jets • Emergence of Megalopolis o BosWash- linking Boston to Washington o SanSan- Sand Diego to San Francisco o ChiPitts- Chicago to Pittsburgh o Greater golden horseshoe- Oshawa to Niagara Lecture #3: The Urban System • “Aset of geographically bounded cities that share a number of common attributes that interact with each other to a more significant extant than cities outside the system” • No cities can grow in a vacuum. Linkages and connections must exists with other cities o Dependency o Competition  Its cheaper for firms to locate in Toronto b.c they pay less property tax o Transportation 2 Types of Urban Systems • Geographic scale o International/global  Linkages between t.o, nyc, London- b.c of finances o Nation  Toronto and Ottawa b.c of government funding  Less funding between Ottawa and Quebec b.c of arguing o Regional  Oshawa, Toronto, Barrie, Kitchener, Windsor- industrial corridor • Functional o Production based o Consumer oriented o Specialized service Evolution of Urban Systems • “Classic” o How did cities emerge?- social surplus and agglomeration • Colonial ie Vance o External settlement selection o Colonial power determines speed o System moves toward interior o exploit raw materials o Eventually, system more functionally integrated and dependent, resembles classic system National Urban Systems I • Most cities accommodate a variety of functions • Many suggested classification schemes o Amount of employment in a particular sector o Population size o Multivariate statically analyses o Cities are placed on urban hiechery is based on sizeAND more variety of functions/services the city provides o Global hierachy0 these cities provide more global benefits- NYC international governance linkages- the center of UN- • Allen Pred (1977) classified according to interdependence and closure o Ie Vancouver has stronger linkages outside the country National Urban System II • Settlement patterns often reflect different urban functions 1. Linear pattern  Urban taking place from one natural recourse to another  Cities evolving in linear patterns • Role of great lakes as a transportation linkage 2. Clustered  Distinct natural resources  Mining clusters- Ex. Sudbury, northern Ontario 3. Uniform/hierarchical pattern  Main town in the middle, lower orders scattered around one  Bigger roads link bigger centers, same thing with small centers City Size Distribution I • “Distribution of cities/urban regions by population” • Directly or indirectly associated with 1. Density of population and population activity 2. Land values and housing prices 3. Traffic Congestion 4. Air pollution 5. Levels of social diversity a. Do bigger cities have more social problems? 6. Levels of amenity/diversity of services City Distribution II • Continuous or Rank-Size Distribution o Clear pattern between city size and rank within the urban system  Is there a proportional difference as you go down the hieracry  This can give a hint in terms of where the city is in its development • Discontinuous o Little relationship between city size and rank Rank • City size and rank are directly linked- o Where a city is ranked is directly b.c of its population size o The higher up the ranker, the more functions it will carry out o Ie Toronto is heavily populated, and has many functions. Biggest labour market, key international services, banking center thus very powerful and highly ranked • Use the Rank Size Rule (Zipf) o Population of any particular city= the population of the city ranked #1, divided by the rank of the particular city  OR “The Worlds Urbanization Prospects” links to the “Human Development index” both by the UN o Population of cityAis directly proportional to the population of the city ranked #1 divided by the rank of cityA Calculating Zipf • Population of a city (of given rank) = Pr • Pop of city ranked #1= P1 • Rank of city= r • Thus Pr = P1/r Toronto CMAwas ranked #1 in Canada’s urban system in 2011 5.6 million. What is the pop of the city ranked #8? P(8)=5,600,000/8 P(8)= 700,000 Therefore, population of city #8 is 700,000. Graph- y=population, x=city rank th The 8 largest city in Canada in 2011 was Hamilton, with a population 721,000. The objective is to take data and see if there is a pattern *graph declining exponentially. Use log to change it linear and we get a downward sloping in the line wood. 3 Types of City-Size distributions 1. Perfect rank size distribution • Associates with a high level of economic development under capitalism • Perfect log ordering of cities by population • Largest labour market, generates most wealth • Downward slope 2. Primate City Distribution • Urban system dominated by one huge city, other cities insignificant • Associated with developing nations/colonial economies • Most of the population lives in one city • Quick downward slope then decreases slower 3. Intermediate or Smaller City-Dominant Distribution • Transitional phase of urban system development • More common in large and highly fragmented nations • Large number of intermediate sized cities- cities have the same pop and economic function ie soviet union • Very slowling declined slope (almost parallel), then quicker decline, then finally really quick decline. 3 uses of Rank-Size Distribution 1. Analysis temporal shift in the urbanization process a. Measure how far urban system has evolved from primate to perfect city size distribution- over long periods of time 2. Allows for comparisons of different urban systems in terms of: a. Dominance of one city group in the urban system b. Metropolitan growth or decline c. Density of economic linkages i. Are cities in hierarchy growin at the same rate? Is there more migration? ii. Not only do cities change, but the system changes too 3. Forecasting or planning a. Predict changes in landscape/population change/what will happen in terms of the eco, soc, housing etc Lecture #4: Cities and Center of Production linkages are the glue which hold urban systems together • Economic linkages Cities as Centres of Manufacturing and Service Delivery Services in support of manufacture or in support of production • Why is there a functional specialization among cities (especially manufacturing activity. o Ie ICT sector- waterloo, Ottawa, Toronto- Computer hardware manufactured o Digital media center- t.o liberty village area • Why are larger cities more economically diversified than smaller cities? • Why do some cities have concentrations of corporate headquarters while others do not o Fortune 500 companies: most located north of NYC Cities as Centers of Manufacturing • Manufacturing is one of the most important component of urban growth o 80% of employment is in services to support manufacturing or production activity o Logistic and accounting decisions take place in the home location even if production is else where ieApple, designed in California made in china o Large contributor to GDP growth • Help to explains o Development of the Urban system:  Supply chain is scattered globally o The emergence of large industrial metropolises o Specialization of cities in particular industries  Helps explains growth rates b.c of specialization ie car production in Ottawa o Differences in rates of growth due to specialization Classifying Manufacturing Places (4) • Components or types of goods o Durable goods o Non-durable • Value-added o High value added (technology, electronics) o Low value added (textiles, furniture)  Ie Metal
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