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University of Toronto St. George
Deborah Cowen

De-industrialization 30 95 97 101 Poverty by Postal Code Gentrification Global City Restrictive Covenants Curitiba Inner Suburb Monster Homes The Chicago School Urban Renewal Gated Community Securitization W.E.B. Dubois Infrastructure Ghetto Post-industrial City Economic Globalization Concentric Zone McJob Push and Pull factors BOOOK Redlining New South Points System Creatures of the Province Precarious Employment New Economy 7th Ward Sustainability The concentric zone model was among the early descriptions of urban form. Originated by Earnest Burgess in the 1920s, the concentric zone model represent the use of urban land as a set of concentric rings with each ring devoted to a different land use. The model was based on Burgesss observations of Chicago during the early years of the 20th century. Major routes of transportation start from the citys core, making the CBD the most accessible location in the city. Burgess identified five rings of land use that would form around the CBD. These rings were originally defined as the (1) central business district, (2) zone of transition, (3) zone of independent workers homes, (4) zone of better residences and (5) zone of commuters.. He saw Chicago as a city in an industrialized country, his idea was that city has one central area, and www.notesolution.comeverything grows from that area, He gave the idea how the cities grow, how does growth and change happen. Burgess described the changing spatial patterns of residential areas as a process of invasion and succession. As the city grew and developed over time, the outward expansion of the CBD would invade nearby residential neighbourhoods causing them to expand outward. The process was thought to continue with each successive neighbourhood moving further from the CBD. On the other hand, Burgess observed that there was a correlation between the distance from the CBD and the wealth of the inhabited area; wealthier families tended to live much further away from the Central Business District. He suggested that inner-city housing was largely occupied by immigrants and households with low socio-economic status. He acknowledged that the general, simplified pattern would be modified if applied to other cities (e.g. by terrain, routes and other constraints); but he suggested that radial expansion along a broad front, stimulated by invasion and succession, was a dominant process in the shaping of the pattern of a city. The model has been challenged by many contemporary urban geographers. First, the model does not work well with cities outside the United States, in particular with those developed under different historical contexts. Deindustrialization Deindustrialization is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry. It involved both the transformation of work and sectoral shifts in employemnet. IS ASSOCIATED with =International change - Regional change - The urban landscape 3. G L O B A L C I T I E S The concept of world city or global city focuses on the role of cities in the organization intentional economic activity. - Cities are not just growing; they are also key actors in globalization. The emerging global system relies on a network of urban places A formerly national urban system is becoming a global urban system - This is changing the relationships between cities, as well as the role of cities in a globalizing economy - It is also changing the internal social and spatial organization of cities.Two aspects of a given city need to be considered in order to understand its position within these networks: 1) the role of a city in global networks and 2) the scale of its spatial dominance (regional, national, or global? - National states still play an important, though reformed, roleWorld cities lie at the junction between world economy and the territorial nation state (Friedmann & Wolff 1982: 312). Ghetto
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