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geo exam review

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR124H1
Professor
Damian Dupuy
Semester
Winter

Description
GENTRIFICATION is the upward class movement in which the property of the working class and poor spaces of the city are transformed into serving the needs of the middle and upper class people.  The wealthy and richer city residents replace the slightly less advantaged and poorer residents and create resources and more benefits for themselves. ex: a beat down area with graffiti all over it can be transformed into an area where a condominium will be built which will result in the original residents not being able to afford to buy the condo and move out of the area while richer and wealthier ppl who can afford to buy it move into the area Once this process of gentrification starts in an area it normally doesn’t stop until all or at least most of the original working class residents are no longer living in the area.  Advantages: improves public services, resources, may reduce crime, poverty and offers social benefits to other, replaces run-down neighbourhoods, makes the neighbourhood look better as if it undergoed a makeover Disadv: triggers inequality and it only provides the advs for those who can afford to use the resources and public services the low income ppl must live in a poorer area which will probably be an area with increased crime rates, community is broken apart Reasons for gentrification occurring: consumer sovereignty; as demand increases supply will fall into place; ppl make choices based on how financially stable they are. ex: if a person were to win the lottery they wud most likely move out of their home and into a bigger house in a bigger area and associate urself with maybe ur own class as long as a possibility for improvement exists gentrification can also exist ex: the rent gap; the older the building the less the rent as long as thre are old buildings being rented out, there are more possibilities in which renovation can occur resulting in that area of an old building to undergo gentrification as well gentrification also occurs due to investment; wealthier ppl buy out building and house and they renovate the space to a more luxurious place which will attract other ppl who can afford to live there, live there. : ppls preferences and taste changes; some ppl like living in big houses and condos; also many ppl like to move in or change areas of very traditional based background and add some modernization to it. certain developments attract ppl into moving into an area which results in gentrification ex: if a hotel is created; hotels attract artists and ppl who can afford to live in a high class hotel ex of places that have gone through gentrification: king street, Yorkville; 10-15 yrs ago they were poor all neighbourhoods go through gentrification gentrification doesn’t not occur all at once in a neighbourhood it goes through steps, it may go under a process called a black by block expansion going back to the hotel and artist example, as u get the artist neighbourhood moving in, the community begins to become popular and gets money, more expensive coffee shops and stores begin to exist and the neighbourhood slowly or sometimes rapidly becomes more industrial than traditional the more rich ppl move in the more expensive things become leaving only the rich ppl to be able to afford shopping in those stores; which this can result in a urban hierarchy where cities/areas are ranked by their size and function this process is called block by block simply because this process starts on one end of the neighbourhood and carries through to each other block some neighbourhoods are also going through a process known as reverse filtering which is similar to gentrification, a theory developed by hoyt. reverse theory is what has been occurring since the 1970s which is when the highest income ppl begin to establish a living in the core of the city or region and the lower and middle class ppl move outward into the suburbs because they are not as financially stable as the richer ppl r to live in the core gentrification is important in the urban geo becuz it is what develops urban change; it allows us to see the factors that cause a neighbourhood to change and how quickly it can change, it can also bring out the inequalities that society is facing especially with class inequalities; it describes the process of how each neighborhood changes gentrification helps one understand the patterns that arise as an area is changing gentrification allows ppl to see a city as a social space; area can change becuz of pop increase, sexual orientation, diversity, association with same class/culture etc 2 key concepts that r important in understanding the development of cities are ALLOMERGATION and social surplus. social surplus is the production of basic goods over and above what is needed for its creation i.o.w it is the leftovers of what u don’t use as a necessity which u can later trade/sell to other ppl ^^ this is how linkages are created and by selling the left overs you make profit in the early years cities were small ranging from 200-20000 ppl and one of the largest was Thebes at the time which had grown in population and function becuz of social surplus, the trades and selling’s that had emerged. things that generate social surplus= new tech and innovations; esp in our day everyone is becoming dependant on tech for a lot of things; portable computers allow for people to work at home or on the subway etc, technology also enables things to become lighter, instead of carrying ur computer ipod and cell phone technology no makes a device where it is all in one which makes things easier for ppl climate change, this can either generate or diminish social surplus, if the weather is good sunny and the right amount of rainfall comes in once in a while then crops will grow in which ppl can sell, trade or provide for themselves, at times many ppl crop more than what they need and when it all grows they trade/sell what they don’t need the climate change changes the growth of crops; if it is bad weather always raining for example of u have a long winter rather then summer ur crops will not grow as much as ud like them too change in social organization; the inequalities going on and the management of slavery and labour work; u need ppl to be able to work in order to have something to offer u or pay u with for ur crops or w.e agglomeration is the clustering of activities, ppl and network of relationships, resources etc in a space on a map There are agglomeration economies and agglomeration diseconomies Agg Economies are similar to economies of scale and are known as the benefits of having everything near and close by one another in a space ex: it is cheaper 2 drive 2 five places
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