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Geography
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GGR240H1
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Fall

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GGR240  Exam  Review WEEK  2 Modernity • par▯cular  constella▯on  of  power,  knowledge,  and  social  prac▯ces  who  can  be  traced  to   Europe  in  the  16th/17th  centuries • widely  supposed  to  cons▯tute  the  dominant  social  order  of  the  planet • where  we  get  Eurocentric  ideals  like  “western  civiliza▯on/values” • Europeans  could  posi▯on  themselves  and  their  lands  against  defini▯vely  OTHER  peoples  and   places • Europe  =  modern,  America  =  not • allowed  Europeans  to  cons▯tute  Europe  as  a  unified  cultural  en▯ty,  a  civiliza▯on -­‐one  that  was  exploring,  conquering  and  colonizing  other  parts  of  the  world • by  the  end  of  the  18th  century  modern  meant  looking  forward,  rather  than  just  ‘new’ • Modernity  and  revolu▯on  in  the  18th  century -­‐reason,  ra▯onality,  and  scien▯fic  truth -­‐obsessed  with  precision  and  truth -­‐radically  modern -­‐use  of  the  grid,  accuracy  of  distance • Consequences  of  Modernity:  as  the  world  transforms,  much  is  destroyed Separa▯ng  ‘Normal’  from  ‘Abnormal’ • who  is  normal  who  is  not,  what  should  be  done  with  those  that  are  abnormal? • how  can  humans  be  educated  to  be  more  “normal” • during  modern  period,  these  situa▯ons  acquired  social-­‐scien▯st  seriousness • rela▯onship  between  the  ra▯onal  and  the  mad • social  Darwinism  -­‐  Darwin’s  theory  of  evolu▯on  and  survival  of  the  fi▯est  applied  to  socio-­‐ poli▯cal  terms   -­‐belief  that  Europeans  were  naturally  superior • geography  of  social  divisions,  locking  people  up  in  asylums • capitalism  is  dependent  on  similar  divisions Separa▯ng  Nature  from  Culture • use  of  words  like  “savages”  “cannibals”  in  early  texts • calling  someone  a  savage  =  revoking  them  of  culture -­‐loca▯ng  them  within  NATURE  rather  than  CULTURE • to  encounter  nature  was  terrifying  for  the  Europeans  se▯ling  in  North  America -­‐seen  and  wri▯en  about  as  extreme/deviant/different -­‐impossible  to  classify  an  environment  as  different  without  classifying  its  inhabitants  as   different • as  the  agents  of  empire  construct  a  landscape  of  wilderness,  the  inhabitants  become  wild  and   savage WEEK  3 The  Tuniit The  first  se▯lers  of  the  Arc▯c:  the  Tuniit • Named  ‘Tuniit’  by  the  Inuit,  whose  oral  histories  record  that  they  drove  the  Tuniit  from  the   land Tuniit  ancestors  (‘Paleo-­‐  Eskimos’)  moved  into  the  region  about  5,000  years  ago • • Remains  from  Alaska  to  Greenland  are  similar  and  dis▯nc▯ve • It  is  named  a▯er  Cape  Dorset  in  Nunavut,  Canada  where  the  first  evidence  of  its  existence   was  found • nuit  legends  recount  them  driving  away  people  they  called  the  Tuniit  (singular  Tuniq)  or   Sivullirmiut  (first  Inhabitants).  According  to  legend,  the  First  Inhabitants  were  "giants",   people  who  were  taller  and  stronger  than  the  Inuit,  but  who  were  easily  scared  off.[1]   Scholars  now  believe  the  Dorset  and  the  later  Thule  people  were  the  peoples  encountered  by   the  Norse  who  visited  the  area.  The  Norse  called  these  indigenous  peoples  skræling. Kennewick  Man • 9,000+  year  old  remains  found  on  the  banks  of  Columbia  River  near  Kennewick,  Washington,   in  1996 first  anthropologist  to  examine  it  argued  that  the  remains  belonged  to  a  “Caucasoid”  male   • who’d  had  “difficul▯es  with  stone  age  peoples”  during  his  travels J.F.  Blumenbach • German  physician,  naturalist,  physiologist,  and  anthropologist.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to   explore  the  study  of  mankind  as  an  aspect  of  natural  history.  His  teachings  in  compara▯ve   anatomy  were  applied  to  the  classifica▯on  of  what  he  called  human  races,  of  which  he   determined  there  to  be  five • Blumenbach's  work  included  his  descrip▯on  of  sixty  human  crania  (skulls)  published  originally   in  fascicules  as  Decas  craniorum  (Gö▯ngen,  1790–1828).  This  was  a  founding  work  for  other   scien▯sts  in  the  field  of  craniometry.  He  divided  the  human  species  into  five  races  in  1779,   later  founded  on  crania  research  (descrip▯on  of  human  skulls),  and  called  them  (1793/1795): • the  Caucasian  or  white  race • the  Mongolian  or  yellow  race,  including  all  East  Asians  and  some  Central  Asians. • the  Malayan  or  brown  race,  including  Southeast  Asian  and  Pacific  Islanders. • the  Ethiopian  or  black  race,  including  sub-­‐Saharan  Africans. • the  American  or  red  race,  including  American  Indians. Further  anatomical  study  led  him  to  the  conclusion  that  'individual  Africans  differ  as  much,  or   even  more,  from  other  individual  Africans  as  Europeans  differ  from  Europeans'. • his  book  on  “Natural  Varie▯es  of  Mankind”  is  the  source  of  the  word  “Caucasoid”  (Caucasian),   from  the  Caucus  Mountains,  where  he  wrote  are  “the  most  beau▯ful  men” • “An  important  part  of  American  Indian  iden▯ty  relies  on  the  belief  that,  in  some  fundamental   way,  they  were  here  first.  They  are  indigenous,  they  are  Na▯ve,  and  they  make  an  important   moral  claim  on  the  na▯onal  conscience  for  this  very  reason.  Yet  if  some  popula▯on  came   before  them  —  perhaps  a  group  their  own  ancestors  wiped  out  through  war  and  disease,  in   an  eerily  reversed  foreshadowing  of  the  contact  Columbus  introduced  —  then  a  vital  piece  of   their  mythologizing  suffers  a  serious  blow. The  Bering  Land  Bridge/Beringia • In  historical  contexts  it  also  includes  the  Bering  land  bridge,  an  ancient  land  bridge  roughly   1,000  miles  (1,600  km)  wide  (north  to  south)  at  its  greatest  extent,  which  connected  Asia  with   North  America  at  various  ▯mes  during  the  Pleistocene  ice  ages. • Has  existed  many  ▯mes  over  the  long  history  of  the  Earth •  It  was  first  ‘proposed’  by  Acosta,  a  Jesuit  missionary,  in  1590 •  The  geological  mystery  was  not  fully  solved  un▯l  the  20th  century Clovis  Culture • The  Clovis  culture  is  a  prehistoric  Paleo-­‐Indian  culture,  named  a▯er  dis▯nct  stone  tools  that   were  found  at  sites  near  Clovis,  New  Mexico,  in  the  1920s  and  1930s.  The  Clovis  culture   appears  around  11,500  RCYBP  (radiocarbon  years  before  prese[1]),  at  the  end  of  the  last   glacial  period,  characterized  by  the  manufacture  of  "Clovis  points"  and  dis▯nc▯ve  bone  and   ivory  tools.  Archaeologists'  most  precise  determina▯ons  at  present  suggest  that  this   radiocarbon  age  is  equal  to  roughly  13,500  to  13,000  calendar  years  ago. WEEK  4 • Contacts,  Collisions,  Rela▯onships • first  mee▯ngs,  a▯empt  at  communica▯on • most  important  source  of  conflict  was  seizure  of  land  by  Europeans -­‐loss  of  land  and  way  of  life • over  ▯me,  rela▯onships  led  to  ACCULTURATION  =  new  composite  cultures  (or  gradual  loss  of   cultures) -­‐exchanging  goods  with  people  also  affects  their  culture -­‐not  exactly  assimila▯on,  more  like  blending  of  two  or  more  cultures  to  create  new  forms • this  model  can’t  account  for  the  ADMINISTRATION  of  territories  by  new  comers,  which  was   neither  collision  nor  rela▯onship -­‐o▯en  to  address  conflict,  administra▯on  comes  a▯er  war -­‐not  a  mutually  beneficial  rela▯onship  -­‐  comes  with  great  deal  of  violence -­‐idea  of  governing  space,  land,  HUMANS • many  different  worlds  begin  to  interact  in  16th  century -­‐brought  distant  geographical  knowledge,  also  brought  categories  of  ‘savages’  that  they  could   apply  to  the  people  they  met  (cultural  category  of  their  own  making) • labels  like  “savages/cannibals”  seem  to  validate  European  presence • Europeans  start  designing  processes  of  owning  and  running  the  land,  while  ignoring  the   indigenous  people,  finding  a  way  to  remove  them  physically  and  culturally • Europeans  could  remove  and  ignore  them,  but  indigenous  people  couldn’t  do  the  same  in   return The  “Pris▯ne  Myth” • Belief  that  America  was  uninhabited  and  pris▯ne  for  coloniza▯on/se▯lement • maps  thus  served  to  dispossess  the  Indians  by  engulfing  them  with  blank  spaces • America  first  had  to  be  ‘invented’  and  integrated  into  the  European  consciousness  before  it   could  be  owned,  colonized,  merchandized,  and  before  it  could  become  a  player  in  the  rise  of   capitalism • the  myth  persists  that  in  1492  the  Americas  were  a  sparsely  populated  wilderness • a  world  of  barely  percep▯ble  human  disturbance • even  though  there  is  substan▯al  evidence  that  the  Na▯ve  American  landscape  was  a   humanized  landscape  almost  everywhere -­‐forest  composi▯on  had  been  modified,  grasslands  created,  wildlife  disrupted,  roads,  fields,   and  se▯lements • myth  of  a  “terrestrial  paradise”,  with  naked  people  living  there  whom  he  called  the  “indians” • it’s  an  inven▯on  of  19th  century  roman▯cist  and  primi▯vist  writers  and  painters • the  wilderness  image  has  since  become  part  of  the  American  heritage,  associated  with  a   heroic  pioneer  past  in  need  of  preserva▯on • maintains  that  it  was  the  Europeans  who  transformed  nature,  following  a  pa▯ern  set  by   Columbus • Indian  popula▯ons  were  large  in  almost  all  regions  of  Americas • once  the  land  was  translated  into  European  language,  more  simpler,  then  it  could  be  argued   and  strategized  over  from  afar • it  allowed  them  to  ignore  indigenous  voices • a  few  lines  on  a  map  served  to  strip  the  land  of  its  indigenous  knowledge,  thus  presen▯ng  it   as  empty  space  available  for  whatever  the  European  imagina▯on  wished  to  do • in  truth,  the  landscape  of  1650-­‐1750  was  more  “pris▯ne/empty”  than  that  of  1492,  because   by  this  point  90%  of  the  Indian  popula▯on  had  been  wiped  out,  primarily  by  old  world   diseases Ecological  Imperialism • the  idea  that  the  true  reason  European  se▯lers  were  so  successful  in  the  coloniza▯on  effort   was  their  introduc▯on  of  animals,  plants,  and  especially  disease  to  new  territories.  The  many   pathogens  they  carried  with  them  adversely  affected  the  na▯ve  popula▯ons  of  North   America,  Australia,  and  Africa,  and  were  far  more  destruc▯ve  than  weaponry:  it  is  es▯mated   that  disease  wiped  out  up  to  90  percent  of  indigenous  people  in  some  loca▯ons Skraelingar • name  given  by  the  Norse  to  the  indigenous  people  they  encountered  in  Greenland  and   eastern  North  America -­‐earliest  known  European  se▯lement  in  the  New  World  (c.  1000  A.D.) -­‐5000  years  before  Columbus -­‐remains  of  Viking  village • Norse  sagas  speak  of  how  they  met  with  people  who  used  whale  teeth  as  spears  and  hunted   animals • unclear  whether  they  were  ancestors  of  later  inhabitants  of  Newfoundland  or  were  related  to   Tuniit  people  of  the  Arc▯c • in  modern  Icelandic,  it  means  “BARBARIAN” • maybe  because  of  unfriendly  encounters  and  climate  of  Newfoundland,  the  Norse  were   unable  to  keep  their  foothold  in  the  area ~ Cannibal a  man  (savage)  who  eats  human  flesh  ...  originally  one  of  the  forms  of  the  ethnic  name  Carib/ • Caribes,  a  fierce  na▯on  of  the  West  Indies,  for  whom  the  term  was  used  to  describe • specific  associa▯on  to  the  Caribbean • 15th  century  onwards,  the  word  was  used  by  Europeans  to  set  themselves  apart  from  the   indigenous  people  (in  this  case  the  Caribbean,  who  they  ul▯mately  colonized) • word  that  provides  a  sort  of  moral  jus▯fica▯on  for  colonialism • to  invoke  cannibalism,  speak  of  primi▯vism,  “NOT  human” • imposi▯on  of  the  empire  circled  around  this  imagery  of  cannibalism  and  the  fact  that  they   didn’t  count  as  humans • violent  imagery  of  the  indigenous  people  shows  that  they  NEED  a  strong  government  to   ‘control  them’ Linguis▯c  Colonialism • the  encounter  with  new  worlds  also  means  new  WORDS • you  need  new  language  to  describe  an  unfamiliar  place -­‐to  compare  it  to  your  own  familiar  culture  and  geography -­‐cannibal  was  one  of  those  words -­‐demoniza▯on  of  the  people • Cannibal  =  the  OTHER  =  those  who  are  not  you • Fernando  (Columbus’  son)  said  he  took  possession  of  the  land  in  the  name  of  Catholic   monarchs,  with  proper  ceremony  and  words • 10  years  a▯er  Columbus’  first  encounter  with  ‘cannibals’  one  of  the  monarchs  who  sponsored   his  voyage  signed  a  law  that  permi▯ed  him  to  capture  and  enslave  these  ‘savages’ suddenly  more  and  more  cannibals  were  found  to  inhabit  more  places • • a  word  like  ‘cannibal’  differen▯ates  the  COLONIZER  from  the  COLONIZED • language  as  a  gi▯ -­‐giving  the  gi▯  of  our  language  to  the  new  world • no  men▯on  of  whether  na▯ve  people  are  reluctant  to  abandon  their  own  language • the  na▯ves  are  seen  as  ‘CULTURALLY  NAKED”  as  well  as  PHYSICALLY  (depic▯on  of  cannibals) • Columbus:  they  will  make  very  good  slaves  because  I  see  that  they  repeat  very  quickly   whatever  was  said  to  them,  and  that  they  would  be  easily  converted  to  Chris▯anity  seeing  as   they  ‘had  no  religion  already’ • some  were  sympathe▯c  -­‐  “just  as  we  call  them  barbarians  just  because  we  don’t  understand   their  language,  they  consider  us  the  same  in  return  because  we  do  not  understand  theirs” • Indian  place  name  contained  in  Columbus’  le▯er “the  indians  call  it  by  this  name  (in  quota▯ons)  “ • another  act  of  possession  in  a  linguis▯c  sense • the  sentence  shows  trace  of  dialogue  that  took  place  between  a  European  and  an  Indian • uneven  power  between  colonizer  and  colonized • Columbus  determines  the  terms  of  the  exchange,  he  gives  authority  to  the  name  and  merely   acknowledges  that  it  used  to  be  once  called  something  else,  by  using  only  the  status  of   quota▯on • Place  names  of  New  England,  New  France,  New  Spain,  were  on  maps  LONG  before  the   se▯lement  fron▯ers  of  those  actual  places • PLACE  NAMES  were  a  means  of  erasure Mar▯n  Waldseemuller • Naming/inven▯ng  America • German  cartographer  who  was  familiar  with  an  Italian  explorer’s  travels • changes  “Amerigo”  to  “America”  (feminine  version) • believed  to  be  the  first  person  to  use  the  word  America  to  refer  to  the  western  land  mass created  map  of  the  world • • 12  panels  -­‐  shields  and  signs  and  images  of  flags  ac▯ng  as  territorial  power  over  land  masses • no  Europeans  had  been  to  the  pacific  side,  but  Mar▯n  made  the  correct  guess  that  there  was   an  ocean  west  of  the  new  world • shows  that  cartography  is  s▯ll  part  imagina▯on/specula▯on • early  European  world  maps  became  powerful  icon  sin  the  way  they  shi▯ed  people’s  a▯en▯on • fascina▯on  of  naming  places  before  actually  se▯ling  there • there  are  also  other  visual  devices  (like  ones  of  cannibalism) -­‐also  the  decision  to  give  feminine  name  to  America • MARTIN  WALDSEEMULLER’s  wall  map  of  the  world  of  1507  also  contains  celebra▯on  of   European  overseas  power,  in  its  accompanying  booklet • states  that  purpose  of  flags  and  shields  on  his  map  was  to  ct  as  territorial  signs “as  farmers  usually  mark  off  and  divide  their  farms  by  boundary  lines,  so  it  has  been  our   endeavor  to  mark  the  chief  countries  of  the  world  by  the  emblems  of  their  rulers” • old  world  “emblems”  included  representa▯on  of  papal  keys,  cross,  etc. • discovery  =  possession many  early  maps  of  Americas  also  proclaim  a  religious  imperialism  as  well  as  a  poli▯cal   • conquest • map  precedes  the  territory • it’s  the  map  that  engenders  the  territory Jan  van  der  Straet’s  “America”  (1600) • shows  Vaspucci  mee▯ng  naked  woman  in  America  res▯ng  on  a  hammock (he  had  already  made  this  discovery  100  years  before  the  etching) • frying  a  leg  in  the  background  -­‐  cannibalism • Vaspucci  looks  surprised,  woman  is  raising  from  her  hammock • landscape  is  wild  and  savage • carrying  cross  and  compass  (symbols  of  science  and  religion) • strange  fantas▯cal  beasts • image  of  history  of  discovery  and  encounter this  image  follows  European  conven▯ons • -­‐prominent  male  explorer  mee▯ng  a  woman,  strange  animals,  cannibalism -­‐iconography • maps  of  the  new  world  were  o▯en  decorated  with  naked  women • using  this  iconography  ,  Europeans  repeatedly  turned  the  indigenous  people  into  “people   without  history/geography” -­‐their  presence  in  history  is  diminished • all  of  this  is  necessary  to  write  the  history  of  America,  destroy  the  previous  history • once  a  word/image  is  introduced  into  circula▯on,  it  gathers  momentum -­‐even  if  just  an  image,  it  has  a  big  impact  on  shaping  culture  and  history by  1650,  90%  of  the  Indian  popula▯ons  in  NA  had  been  wiped  out  through  violence  and   • disease Maps • used  largely  as  tools  for  naviga▯on finding  your  way  on  land • • plans  for  new  colonial  towns • public  propaganda  images  to  a▯ract  new  se▯lers  to  America • statements  of  territorial  appropria▯on,  devices  by  which  a  Na▯ve  American  presence  could  be   silenced Indian  maps  not  only  helped  guide  invaders,  but  Indian  geographies  were  incorporated  into   • European  maps  that  would  become  standard  images  of  America  for  much  of  the  16th-­‐17th   centuries • ironically,  the  Na▯ve  informa▯on  that  was  incorporated  into  maps  became  a  means  of   enabling  Europeans  to  re-­‐conceptualize  Na▯ve  space  in  European  terms earliest  maps  of  the  New  World  had  become  ‘super  icons’  by  the  1800s • • were  it  not  for  new  maps,  America  would  hardly  have  entered  the  European  consciousness   and  could  not  have  been  colonized  in  the  way  it  was • maps  were  being  drawn  by  Indians  themselves • without  Indian  contribu▯on  the  maps  wouldn’t  have  been  so  detailed/useful  at  all maps  planted  with  na▯onal  flags  -­‐  as  if  claiming  ownership  of  the  new  territories  and  marking   • out  spheres  of  poli▯cal  influence • coats  of  arms  of  ruling  families  of  Europe  are  also  a  hallmark  of  colonial  maps • both  these  icons  symbolize  the  elaborate  ceremonies  by  which  new  land  was  claimed  by   explorers • also  to  validate  na▯onal  claims  to  the  new  territories • later,  portraits  of  the  discoverers  were  also  placed  in  the  corners  of  the  American   hemisphere,  as  if  adding  authority  to  European  coloniza▯on • maps  precedes  the  territory • it’s  the  map  that  engenders  the  territory • the  way  maps  were  drawn  with  simplis▯c,  very  few  lines,  allowed  Europeans  to  begin  to   possess  places  they  barely  knew • the  arc▯c  and  Hudson  Bay  would  both  be  later  drawn  on  maps  when  the  English  fur  trade   began  in  late  1600s WEEK  5 Imperialism • type  of  geopoli▯cal  rela▯onship:  “the  aggressive  encroachment  of  one  people  upon  the   territory  of  another,  resul▯ng  in  the  subjuga▯on  of  the  la▯er  people  to  alien  rule.” • subjuga▯on  =  coloniza▯on   • building  of  an  empire  through  crea▯on  of  colonies  •  almost  all  of  north  america  was  turned   into  an  ʻImperial  Spaceʼ  by: -­‐renaming  space   -­‐bridging  languages  (a▯empt  to  learn  local  and  also  teach  them  at  the  same  ▯me)   -­‐bring  value  system  (religious/poli▯cal/economic)   -­‐create  code  of  law -­‐governing  system   -­‐security  (military) • all  opera▯ng  at  different  scales   The  Towns  of  New  Spain new  se▯lement  geography  (colonial  towns) • • new  category  of  popula▯on  (mes▯zos  -­‐  mixed  European  and  Central  American  heritage) • new  labour  system  (encomienda/  ‘trusteeship’  =  to  entrust) • new  calendar  and  religious  system • new  language • but  while  the  arm  of  Spain  was  long,  it  could  not  control  everything,  par▯cularly  at  the  scale   of  daily  life -­‐language,  culture  survives • socie▯es  are  ▯ed  to  the  places  in  which  they  sit  -­‐  cannot  simply  create  a  new  europe  in   central  america • try  to  unify  -­‐  one  language,  one  religion,  one  god • in  New  Spain,  2  of  the  most  drama▯c  introduc▯ons  were  the  gun  and  the  horse • replacement  of  one  technology  -­‐  indigenous  people  in  the  prairies  ge▯ng  everything  they   need  to  survive  from  one  animal  (the  buffalo) -­‐with  another • guns  with  horses  gave  new  mobility,  be▯er  for  killing  buffalo,  more  efficient  hunt  leads  to   more  ▯me  for  other  ac▯vi▯es -­‐leading  to  explosion  of  indigenous  culture  and  ceremonies Into  the  heart  of  Aztec  Empire:  Hernando  Cortes  in  Mexico,  1519 • roads  and  irriga▯on,  mineral  deposits,  slave  labour  already  established  in  Aztec  empire • central  america  -­‐  massacres,  epidemics  -­‐  brought  by  Spanish • brought  guns,  horses,  ca▯le,  wheat,  barley • all  leading  to  the  crea▯on  of  New  Spain a▯er  the  conquest,  they  are  interested  first  and  foremost  in  resources • -­‐precious  minerals • established  massive  mining  camps  that  required  a  lot  of  development -­‐locals  forced  to  work  in  the  mines • this  development  lead  to  the  ability  to  establish  towns • Spanish  colonial  urbanism:  Santo  Domingo,  1671 (rectangular  grid  plan  with  central  plaza  or  cathedral) • by  middle  of  16th  century,  these  towns  become  symbolic  centers  of  Spanish  empire they  were  controlled  from  Spain • • these  towns  represent  stable  points  of  imperial  control • back  in  Spain,  increase  in  number  of  universi▯es  -­‐  in  order  to  train  future  local  administrators   in  New  Spain Mar▯n  Forbisher • led  the  first  a▯empt  by  the  English  to  establish  a  se▯lement  in  North  America • first  step  in  eventual  Bri▯sh  claim  to  sovereignty  over  much  of  the  con▯nent • 3  voyages:  1576-­‐78 • he  was  basically  a  pirate • minimal  a▯empt  to  se▯le  NAmerica -­‐▯ed  to  gold  mining  fraud • -­‐he  instructed  his  crew  to  collect  things  in  the  idea  of  “chris▯an  possession”  (like  Columbus) -­‐jus▯fied  by  religion • one  of  the  sailors  brought  back  a  black  stone • eventually  the  ice  melted  and  he  sailed  into  Frobisher  Bay,  Baffin  Island  (thinking  it  was  a   clear  path  to  the  west) • some  Inuit  was  taken  to  shore  along  with  5  sailors,  they  never  returned,  Forbisher  took   another  inuit  hostage,  but  the  soldiers  weren’t  find to  this  day  legends  of  5  sailors  being  accidentally  marooned  in  Baffin  island,  died  next  summer   • when  they  tried  to  leave • Frobisher  goes  home  a▯er  1st  voyage -­‐someone  threw  black  stone  into  fire,  where  it  gli▯ered  with  gold -­‐an  alchemist  said  it  was  very  valuable  -­‐  said  it  was  gold financial  backers  for  a  second  voyage  are  soon  found • • goes  back,  digs  mine  and  took  200  tons  of  black  rock/ore • more  hostages,  deaths,  etc. • he  goes  back  a  3rd  ▯me  with  15  ships  to  quarry  massive  amounts  of  rock -­‐a  small  stone  house  was  built  on  Baffin  Island,  filled  with  items  he  put  in  there,  as  a  marker  of   possession • he  didn’t  have  enough  food  to  establish  colony  there • he  goes  back  with  his  15  ships,  and  then  they  didn’t  find  any  gold  from  the  rocks • financial  supporters  went  bankrupt,  Forbisher’s  reputa▯on  was  ruined • he  was  basically  a  failure  as  an  explorer  with  ONE  excep▯on: -­‐the  idea  of  ‘land  taking’  (naming  Foreland,  etc.)  was  s▯mulus  of  very  important  document   from  Queen  Elizabeth  I -­‐John  Dee  gave  this  document  to  Queen  in  1580 -­‐one  side  was  map  of  the  world -­‐other  side  was  detailed  jus▯fica▯on  to  northern  por▯ons  of  NAmerica 100  years  a▯er  Frobisher’s  voyagers,  English  followed  ideas  of  John  Dee  and  found  Hudson   • Bay • Hudson  made  the  right  turn  and  found  Hudson  Bay • discovery  of  Hudson  bay  led  to  fur  trade • there  was  a  trend  back  in  England  with  fur  hats,  this  lead  to  trading  for  fur The  Fur  Trade  in  Canada • began  haphazardly  on  the  Atlan▯c  coast  in  16th  century  (randomly) • became  major  enterprise  in  GReat  Lakes  region  by  17th • dominant  in  western  interior  by  18th  century • present  on  all  3  coasts  of  canada  by  19th  century • nearly  every  aspect  of  indigenous  life  was  affected  by  these  exchanges • compe▯▯on  from  montreal’s  NW  Company  ended  in  1821  when  the  2  merged,  and  HBC   achieved  a  near-­‐monopoly  over  the  Canadian  fur  trade • essen▯ally  ran  a  huge  chunk  of  the  territory  that  became  Canada • monopoly  of  trade  around  hudson  bay  and  james  bay  areas • -­‐capital  of  the  trading  posts -­‐discouraged  interac▯on  with  indigenous  people  (except  traders) -­‐high  officials  of  the  posts  were  allowed  to  take  indigenous  wives,  and  later  leave  them   behind • the  fur  trade  depended  on  exchange • great  deal  of  violence,  exploita▯on,  but  at  root  it  is  a  story  of  indigenous  people  providing  fur   for  other  things • the  fur  trade  wiped  out  huge  percentages  of  fur  bearing  animals -­‐also  spread  disease The  Las▯ng  Importance  of  the  Fur  Trade 1. established  an  english  presence  on  the  northern  flank  of  NAmerica 2. brought  Europeans  and  Indigenous  communi▯es  together  in  complex  rela▯onships 3. part  of  a  global  Bri▯sh  trading  system  that  extended  to  West  Africa  and  South  Asia -­‐small  but  significant  piece  of  growing  global  Bri▯sh  commercial  empire local  scale:  in▯mate  trading  sequences  at  the  posts larger  scale:  commercial  establishment The  Staples  Thesis • theory  of  Canadian  economic  development  associated  with  poli▯cal  economist  Harold  Innis • argued  that  Canada  developed  in  a  par▯cular  ay  of  owning  to  its  staple  commodi▯es:  raw   materials  like  fish,  fur,  lumber,  and  minerals  that  were  exported  to  Europe • different  staples  led  to  different  regional  economies  (e.g.  cod  in  the  Mari▯mes) Atlan▯c  Staple  Regions Three  “Atlan▯c  Staple  Regions”  (From  Stephen  Hornsby) 1. Cod  around  Newfoundland 2. Sugar  in  the  West  Indies 3. Fur  through  Hudson  Bay • all  fell  under  metropolitan  control,  dominated  from  a  distance  by  English  interests • other  commodi▯es  like  tobacco  and  rice  were  controlled  more  by  local  interests  in  the   colonies • fur  and  cod,  didn’t  require  a  lot  of  territory  control,  just  coasts • french  and  english  start  to  push  more  inland • John  Cabot  had  found  abundance  of  codfish,  and  immediately  European  offshore  fisheries   moved  to  exploit  it • the  first  of  the  staple  trades  was  the  cod  fishery • the  labour  had  to  come  from  somewhere,  and  op▯ons  were  to  bring  it  from  Europe  or  recruit   it  overseas • along  most  of  the  coasts  of  the  inshore  fishery,  the  Indian  popula▯on  was  too  small  and  too   dispersed  to  provide  more  than  occasional  labour • rela▯ons  between  them  had  also  soured,  soma  Na▯ve  women  were  raped,  some  killed • in  much  of  Newfoundland  the  na▯ves  avoided  the  coasts  when  Europeans  were  there,  then   ransacked  their  cabins  for  iron  when  they  were  gone • thus  most  of  the  fishery  labour  came  from  Europe FUR  TRADE • en▯rely  dependent  on  Na▯ve  labour  to  gather  and  prepare  furs,  and  for  Na▯ve  traders  to   barter  them  for  European  goods most  common  focus  of  interac▯on  was  the  fur  trade  post,  a  for▯fied  site  where  European   • traders  in  Na▯ve  territory  where  they  felt  secure -­‐it  linked  to  Na▯ve  sources  of  fur  to  European  suppliers  and  markets • transatlan▯c  voyage  connected  with  Na▯ve  canoe  trips • fur  trade  emerged  as  system  of  forts  and  routes  of  transporta▯on  and  communica▯on  that   connected  European  and  Na▯ve  worlds • the  cod  fishery  brushed  Na▯ve  people  aside  while  the  fur  trade  depended  on  them • the  fur  trade  would  expand  across  the  con▯nent,  altering  the  lives  of  all  Na▯ve  people  it  came   into  contact  with • cod  fishery  remained  fixed  along  seacoast fate  of  the  Newfoundland  na▯ves  were  bad  as  they  were  cut  off  from  the  coast  and  would   • eventually  starve  in  the  interior WEEK  6 The  Black  Atlan▯c • The  slave  trade  as  the  basis  for  the  “black  Atlan▯c”,  a  realm  of  transna▯onal  culture  between   Africa,  Europe,  and  the  Americas The  Planta▯on • At  the  ▯me  of  Columbus,  this  is  a  new  mode  of  produc▯on. • Although  it  has  precedents  in  the  Roman  la▯fundia  (large  farms),  in  the  late  15  and  early   16  century  the  planta▯on  was  a  new  landscape • Put  simply,  a  planta▯on  was  a  large  tract  of  privately  owned  land  worked  by  many  slaves  to   produce  a  high-­‐value  commodity  for  export  to  an  external  market. • 1492,  Columbus  went  west  from  Spain.  A  place  to  be  turned  into  commercial  labor  (like  the   Canaries). Hispaniola The  Colonial  Transforma▯on  of  Hispaniola • island  of  Dominican  Republic  and  Hai▯ • The  island  was  quickly  and  aggressively  modified  by  the  Spanish • The  conquest  of  nature  and  culture  were  concurrent:  the  indigenous  popula▯on  went  from   some  300,000  in  1492  to  500  in  1548. • They  died  from  disease,  but  also  from  the  brutal  working  condi▯ons  in  colonial  mines  on   planta▯ons. • West  African  slaves  first  arrived  in  1518. Characteris▯cs  of  Slavery  in  the  Americas 1)  The  use  of  mass  labor  in  specialized  agricultural  or  mineral  produc▯on  for  export o Monoculture 2)  The  exploita▯on  of  this  labor  as  a  commodity  to  be  used  up  and  replaced  by  purchase. 3)  An  extensive  system  to  supply  large  numbers  of  people  for  sale  annually 4)  Heavy  male  bias—preven▯ng  the  forma▯on  of  families 5)  Debasement,  such  that  slaves  were  treated  as  unworthy  of  incorpora▯on  into  the  general   community 6)  The  linkage  of  status  with  race -­‐ 11,000,000  Africans  were  taken  to  the  new  world  under  condi▯ons  that  they  didn’t   want  to. o Largest  forced  migra▯on  in  the  human  history. • Slvaery  and  the  economic  development  of  the  United  States: • Capitalism  and  slavery  were  one  and  the  same  before  the  civil  war. • Enslaved  people  were  the  capital  in  the  credit-­‐and-­‐co▯on  economy  of  the  19  century. • Expanding  the  consumer  culture. Barbados • First  claimed  in  by  the  English  in  1625 • Its  ini▯al  exports  were  tobacco,  ginger,  and  co▯on,  grown  on  small  farms  using  indentured   servants  from  England  and  nearby • By  1660,  it  produced  most  of  the  sugar  consumed  in  England • It  had  also  become  the  first  English  colony  in  the  Americas  with  an  African  enslaved  majority   popula▯on. • Sugar  plan▯ng  transformed  the  economy,  landscape,  demography,  and  social  structure  of  the   island • Built  extraordinary  mansions -­‐Constantly  terrified  of  slave  rebellion Olaudah  Equiano • Olaudah  Equiano  (c.  1745  –  31  March  also  known  as  Gustavus  Vassa,  was  a  prominent   African  involved  in  the  Bri▯sh  movement  for  the  aboli▯on  of  the  slave  trade.  He  was  enslaved   as  a  child,  purchased  his  freedom,  and  worked  as  an  author,  merchant,  and  explorer  in  South   America,  the  Caribbean,  the  Arc▯c,  the  American  colonies,  and  the  United  Kingdom,  where  he   se▯led  by  1792.  His  autobiography,  The  Interes▯ng  Narra▯ve  of  the  Life  of  Olaudah  Equiano,   depicts  the  horrors  of  slavery  and  influenced  the  enactment  of  the  Slave  Trade  Act  of  1807. *The  Seigneurial  System • land  as  a  commodity • The  Seigneurial  System  in  New  France  (Quebec),  pre-­‐1763 • Along  the  St.  Lawrence,  land  is  divided  into  long  strips  owned  by  the  king,  but  owned  by  a   landlord,  then  given  to  tenants. • This  system  remained  in  tact  for  almost  a  century.     • Officially  abolished  in  1854 • Various  systems  were  in  use,  but  all: -­‐Opened  areas  for  agriculture -­‐Bounded  proper▯es -­‐Made  the  transfer  of  land  to  individuals  easier -­‐Turned  earth  into  a  commodity • In  prac▯ce,  the  lands  were  arranged  in  long,  narrow  strips  called,  seigneuries,  along  the  banks   of  the  St.  Lawrence  River,  its  estuaries,  and  other  key  transit  features.  Both  in  nominal  and   legal  terms,  all  French  territorial  claims  in  North  America  belonged  to  the  King  of  France.   French  monarchs  did  not  impose  the  seigneurial  system  on  New  France,  and  the  king’s  actual   a▯achment  to  these  lands  was  virtually  non-­‐exist Instead,  Seigneurs  were  allo▯ed  land   holdings  and  presided  over  the  French  colonial  agricultural  system  in  North  America. • This  physical  layout  of  seigneurial  property  developed  as  a  means  of  maximizing  ease  of   transit,  commerce,  and  communica▯on  by  exploi▯ng  naturally  occurring  riparian  networks   (most  notably,  the  St.  Lawrence  river)  and  the  rela▯vely  sparse  man-­‐made  infrastructure.  A   desirable  plot  had  to  be  directly  bordering  or  in  very  close  proximity  to  a  river  system,  which   plot-­‐expansion  was  limited  to  one  of  two  direc▯ons—le▯  or  right **Cadastral  Maps • The  defining  symbol  of  surveys:  the  cadastral  map Showing  boundaries  and  ownership  of  land  parcels • • Distant  and  una▯ached  geographic  representa▯on. • Not  much  to  do  with  the  land  itself. • A  cadastre  ,  using  a  cadastral  map,  is  a  comprehensive  register  of  the  real  estate  or  real   property's  metes-­‐and-­‐bounds  of  a  country. • A  cadastre  commonly  includes  details  of  the  ownership,  the  tenure,  the  precise  loca▯on   (some  include  GPS  coordinates),  the  dimensions  (and  area),  the  cul▯va▯ons  if  rural,  and  the   value  of  individual  parcels  of  land.  Cadastres  are  used  by  many  na▯ons  around[1]    world, some  in  conjunc▯on  with  other  records,  such  as  a  ▯tle  register. WEEK  7 The  BC  Reserve  System Bri▯sh  Columbia  around  1871 • Colonialism    was  expressed  in  a  reserve  system • Confined  Aboriginal  people  and  opened  the  rest  of  the  land  for  coloniza▯on • They  were  in  the  way,  their  land  was  coveted,  so  se▯lers  took  it • The  lines  that  divided  reserves  from  rest  of  BC  became  most  important  lines  on  maps  of  BC • Not  just  an  example  of  racist  colonial  ideals -­‐the  root  is  story  of  dispossession  –  taking  land  away • Sites  where  colonialism  was  actually  prac▯ced    -­‐  is  where  you  can  see  its  effects • Over  the  19  century    ‘na▯ve  space’  gradually  changed  into  a  place  of  Bri▯sh  Sovereignty -­‐what  was  originally  based  on  rela▯onship  of  trade,  changed  to  control  of  land • Once  you  take  land  away  from  people.  You  have  to  put  them  somewhere • This  was  a  violent  process • New  se▯lers  believed  aboriginals  did  not  use  their  land  properly/efficiently • The  average  immigrant  to  BC  was  not  coming  to  civilize  aboriginals,  they  were  coming  for   the  land -­‐cheap,  unused  land  into  which  se▯lers  could  arrive  and  claim • Role  of  maps  at  this  ▯me? -­‐maps  were  tools  in  the  process  of  claiming  land -­‐a  map  alone  is  some▯mes  enough  to  give  preemp▯ve  control  over  the  land  it  depicts -­‐wri▯en  descrip▯on  alongside  image  becomes  an  applica▯on  to  take  land  from  one  group   and  assign  it  to  another • Reserves  as  bureaucra▯c  spaces -­‐they  were  mapped,    given  names,  sizes,  acreage -­‐you  could  locate  the  reserve  in  books • The  maps  start  to  define  where  you  could/could  not  live/go • Aboriginals  try  to  do  what  they  can  to  prolong  rese▯lement John  Wesley  Powell • In  1869  led  the  Powell  Geographic  Expedi▯on  from  Green  River  Crossing,  Wyoming,  down   th
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