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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Lewis

GGR254H Lecture Jan 16/13 America as Empire: • How was a set of relatively isolated spaces transformed into the most powerful nation in the world? o Argument= transformation of an ‘isolated’ land into a minor colonial mercantile society and then into the world’s most powerful economic, military and political power o America was not yet a nation, rather a large collection of individual groups of people  Not yet connected, not yet a super power o Incorporation, 1492-1890  Integration into the world economy  European struggles over world supremacy  This is when the US developed into a nation state and integrated into the world economy o Dynamic economic base (trade)  This would compete in the 19 cent. With GB, FR, DL, etc.  By linking through trade, US merchants were able to create a strong, large, dynamic commercial economy o Dynamic economic base (manufacturing)  US creates largest industrial base in the world o Political independence and building of a nation  Through revolution from GB  The creation of a political system, built on property, wealth, socio-economic class, etc.  Key difference = US is a republic, not ruled by a monarch • Created US a nation on the world stage o Territorial expansion of occupied lands  Imperial expansion, to take over vast amount of land  Territory that did not really belong to them o Immigration as population generator  Until 1800 US population was relatively small, but after it really took off. o Internationalization (1840▯)  Political-military-economic globalization th • American rise to world dominance begins in the first half of the 19 cent. o Internationalization: US Economic Expansionism  Move of firms overseas, rise of MNC’s  Move overseas takes many forms  Politically justified • Free trade was major way in which economies should develop • US would bring capitalist civilization to the rest of the world • Capitalism against communism  Growing relationship between the state, business and the military • Government stimulates and supports overseas expansion • Growing intervention in most aspects of everyday life o Technology and competition  Lead has fallen as other non-American nations are in competition against American corporations. o Investment Overseas  Increasing American TNC investment abroad part of long-term strategy for increasing profits o Raw material dependence  US resources are becoming depleted and too $$ o Imperial overstretch  Drain on financial and diplomatic resources o The end of victory culture:  Erosion of confidence in the idea of an inherentAmerican superiority  • Question: How was “America” settled and what were the consequences for the native inhabitants? o European Expansion  Battle for empire by European powers  Britain victorious • Values on possessions • Industrialization • Military o The frontier and expansionism  Exploitation of natural resources  Capital investment increase in # of different sectors  Ideology of stratification • Hierarchical systems established around political, social, and economic institutions • Property relations o Aspecific set of property relations develops around land as a commodity to be bought and sold o Native land ▯ settler, government and corporate land • Population growth: o Arapidly growing and mobile population, spreads across the opened-up territory • Imperial destiny o ‘American’ (aka European) superiority and their rights to the land • the result? o The created of the territorial expanse of what is now the continental USA o Territory, land and natives  Unequal relationships that leads to the virtual destruction of native societies  Culture and environment • The culture and environment of ‘America’ at the time of European contact contained a wide variety of native societies  Territory: R Schien • 3 types of European-native interactions o Expulsion o Articulation o Stratification o Territory:  Private property and native land relations • Europeans and nativeAmericans had different conceptions of land • Native= communal; European= property  Western Liberal Ideology • Horace Greeley (1811-1872) o Aprogressive editor, reformer and politician o “There is no hope for them. God has given this earth to those who will subdue and cultivate it, and it is vain to try to struggle against his righteous decree”  Government-Native Treaties • After 1978 the US government and native groups entered into 100s of treaties giving free title to the former • Land Cessions o Giving up the right to land, usually in exchange for something else o The process starts on the eastern seaboard and works its way west • Other government policies o 1763- royal proclamation o 1830- Indian removal act o 1835- permanent Indian reserve o 1851- Indian appropriations act o Conclusion: The Results:  Land is taken away from the natives  Massive population loss of nativeAmericans  Creation of “American” territory  Formation of continental, capitalist society GGR254 Lecture Jan 23/13 Part 1: Populating a Nation: Immigration Question: in what ways has the population composition of the United States changed since the beginning of European settlement? • Population and immigration • Forced immigration-African Americans • Immigration policy Immigration: • Fuels population growth • Slow up until the 1840s • Rapid rinse then, especially after 1950 • Immigration is cyclical and relation to changes in the international world • Source of immigration toAmerica has changed dramatically over time • Immigration (Pre 1880s) o Western and northern European dominate • 1880-1965 o a major shift to places in other parts of Europe • 1965-present o Another major shift in source of immigrants to the SUA Immigration: Urbanization • Most immigrants since 1850 have settled in cities • Immigration and movement from other parts of the US are responsible for the growth and decline ofAmerican cities- why? • Africans and theAmerican agricultural system: o Enforced labor (slaves) for the southern plantation from settlement (in the 1600s) until 1865 (13 amendment) o Political economy  Slavery unpins the creation of a distinctive political economy in the southern states o Geographic spread  Slavery as a political, social and economic system spreads from Virginia through all of the southern states o Great Migration  1890-1945  Massive migration from the south to the north o Post-war migration  Reproduces pre-war patterns  The contemporary geographical pattern ofAfrican Americans settlement have become more complex Immigration Policies: • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 o Adiscriminatory act that shapedAmerican society o National Origins quotaAct (1924)  Another discriminatory act that shapedAmerican society • Immigration policy o Several changes between 1924-1965  1943: repeal of Chinese exclusion act  1952: immigration and nationality act • Main thrust? • Main purpose • Intended purpose backfired  1953: refugee relief act Conclusion: • Implications of changes to immigration? o Nation’s ethnic/racial structure o Politics of representation o Population geographies January 23/13 Part Two: Economic Expansion- the forging of empire Question: • What is theAmerican economy and how has it changed over the past 500 years? o Commercial-agrarian economy o Industrial capitalism and national growth Commercial-Agrarian Economy: th • Pre-mid 19 century: long-distant commerce drove the economic development of the US o Both as a colony and as an independent nation • International Trade: o Akey element of development o Flow of commodities, capital, people • Atlantic Triangle o Formal expression of long-distant trading created o Importance of commercial policy • Navigation Acts (1651-1660) o Set of acts to regulate global shipping and trade o Function: link empire together o Impact on theAmerican colonies? • Subsistence agriculture and the family farm o Labor, technology, markets and growth ▯ collective individualism • Plantation o Slave-based agriculture o Defined by: type of demand/scale/division of labor/geography • Cotton, tobacco, and other plantation goods are the basis of the southern economy • Staples economy: range of resources that fed economic growth • What sort of economy has been created by the early 19 century? o Commercial-agrarian, manufacture ensemble o Powerhouse based on commercial capitalist principals Industrial capitalism and national growth • The US becomes the major industrial power by WWI • The continues for the rest of the century • Shifting investment o Anew means of accumulation and circulating capital o Capital shifts from trade to industry o Rise of factory economy o Capital flows into infrastructures • Sectorial restructuring: o Trade-agrarianism▯ rise of industrial capital o Development of finance capital o Rise of manufacturing o Industrialization of agriculture • Shifts in work scale o Increasing scale of the workplace o Most people employed in large workplaces • Industrial society: o New forms of living and places • Shifting populations o Development of the urban society o Urbanization linked to three key features: • Core urban –industrial region o Manufacturing belt of the N.East • Inter-regional dependency o Urban-industrial complete- N. East o Resource based regions- West and South Conclusion: • TheAmerican economic empire o Circulation of ideas, capital, etc. o Ideology of market-based capitalism o Concentration of wealth and power in a few hands o Geographical expansion- inside/outside USA o Geographical search for profits and market share o GGR254 Part 1: The Rise of the Manufacturing Belt Lecture Feb 6/2013 • Manufacturing belt was the main place of industrialization in the world in the early 1900s • Question: What is the manufacturing belt? How did it develop? What is its importance? Paterson NJ: • 30 miles west of NYC • Founded in 1792, because there were waterfalls there, and they could be used for waterpower o Used to drive textile mills (silk) • Had over 100,000 people • Producing steel, locomotives, etc. • Very much a typical industrial place • Developed in response to increasing demand ofAmericans from places outside of the US o Exported lots of their products worldwide • Has industry, urban based manufacturing • Large immigrant population o Italians and Eastern European population o Where the rich live separate from the working class o Different ethnic groups live in different parts of the city What is the manufacturing belt? • 14,000 miles in length, 300 miles in width • Occupies 3% ofAmerica’s territory • In 1919 manufacturing belt had 50% of population, but 73% of manufacturing employment • Large ports, railroad concentration, where everything comes together and connects • Develops by 1850s a new structure to everyday life o Aworld in which the factory and the world around it dominates the lives of the everyday American o Shapes industrial and economic growth of the united states o Powerfully integrated system  There is an economic system centered on a diverse and complex urban system  Urbanization and industrialization went hand in hand  What we see developing was developing in the manufacturing belt  Clear overlap between most of the large cities of the US and the industrial manufacturing belt • While industry is the drive: it also has a significant agricultural component o Centered on important agricultural growth (since the “frontier”) o Several key elements to the ‘Corn Belt’  The center of corn production • Ahighly important and mechanized- extremely linked to industrialization • Agriculture was industrial, modern, outside of cities- but linked to cities • Manufacturing belt wouldn’t have been possible without this relationship with the agricultural system • Urban-Rural interaction  Similarly, there is a relationship found with the area’s lumbar and mineral sources • Diverse and changing population: o Rural to urban migration o Immigration to the cities Growth Dynamics: • Center of industrial investment o New forms of capital formation and accumulation o Key players are industrialists and financiers  What we see taking place is this shift to industrial capital  Drives American economy and shapesAmerican urban life and society  The key to this industrial-urban complex is agriculture  Agricultural industrialization: • Increased inputs and linkages, corporate control and external dependence o Industrial-mineral-forest linkages  Exploitation of the area’s lumber and mineral resources o Interaction across urban space  Cities are not independent from each other  Dependent on the flows of goods, people, capital, ideas, knowledge  There is an urban hierarchy  By 1930, the population of urban centers (urban population map) o Role of the state (government)  Instrumental in the creation of regional space  Land policy: creating “European” land and expanding markets  Tariffs • Duties imposed on imported goods 5-50% tax • They protect domestic markets  Infrastructures: • Building and maintenance of infrastructures (railroads, rivers, harbors, etc.) o Federal legislation  Legislation allows the development of corporations • Made them legally operable • Conclusion: o US urban-industrial complex in place by the 1880s  Underpinned by resource extraction o Home toAmerica’s financial, industrial and political elites o “Workshop of the world” Part 2: Deindustrialization of the Manufacturing Belt • Question: Why did the Manufacturing Belt experience economic decline after WWII? And what ere the implication for industrial cities? • Industrial Decline and the Manufacturing Belt o Large-scale regional and local economic changes in the postwar period- the MB experienced massive industrial decline o 21,000 factories closed down in the NE region o 1,000,000 jobs were lost, not to be replaced o The old patterns of industrialAmerica are being reversed o Manufacturing belt turns into rust belt o What accounts for these changes?  Post industrialism • Change is inevitable and evolutionary  Creative destruction: capitalism builds on the ruins of the past  Deindustrialization; systematic disinvestment in production • Systematic disinvestment, a powerful system, but these people are making the decisions about what happens • De industrialization o 3 components: 1. Structural decline in manufacturing employment 2. Shrinking share of national employment 3. Manufacturing job loss not compensated by jobs elsewhere • Why did it take place? o Part of the impasse- the loss of global dominance since the late 1960s o High: shifting capital is responsible  These old factories are inferior to the new ones that can be built elsewhere  Beings in the 1930s and accelerates from the 1950s  Tied to long-term corporate investment decisions  Operates at several geographic scales simultaneously  But it is local places that feel the brunt of change • Deindustrialization and Place o Reverse circular and cumulative causation  Loss of manufacturing jobs has negative effects in the local economy and community • Negative process of change o What is the implication for the city and the neighborhood?  Akron, OH • The tire producing center of the world • Regional/local shutdowns + capital shift • 1979-1985 Firestone Ties closed 14 of its 19 N.American factories o Cut it’s workforce in half • Massive job loss and by the 1980s theAkron rubber industry is more or less gone  Monticello, IN • Typical case of capital switching • Late 1970s- RCA (electronic corporation) • Built cabinet factory (in NC) • 1980-1982- layoff workers • July 1982- closed the factory • Impact of closing? Massive Impacts o Jobs o Local taxes and business o Social services cost o Health problems and depression o Community sensibility  South Bend IN • Case of how manufacturing jobs are not replaced by new ones • The traditional industrial economy, which is centered on manufacturing employment, has been in free-fall • What are the corporate executives doing? o Decisions that ignore local needs o Capital shifts as a tactical response  Conclusion: • Hollowing out of industrial heartland • Shift in economic base • Corporate control over everyday life GGR254 Lecture Feb 13/13 The Rise of the Sunbelt Question: What is the Sunbelt? How has it emerged as the dominant region in the postwar period? Will use the ‘Old South’ and Texas as illustrations Structure: Elements of the Old South The “triumphant New South” Texas and the Golden Crescent Elements of the Old South 1. Institutionalized Racism • Culture formed around hostile separation • Influenced every aspect of southern life 2. Rural Society • Tobacco, rice, cotton, export crops grow in plantations, and then with sharecropping • Cotton was the key in the agricultural output of the area • Small urban population • Most people lived outside of urban places • in 1920 only 1/3 of southerners lived in cities (as opposed to 2/3 in manufacturing belt) • Lack of urbanization is related to: • Dependence of agriculture • South had a narrow economic spectrum (did little outside of agriculture) • Relied heavily on northern cities for financial, educational and manufacturing based functions 3. Little manufacturing before WWII • Low wage, labor intensive and centered on a narrow spectrum of low-value industries (textile, shoes) 4. ‘Colonial appendage’ of the North: • Political and economic institutions • Banks were concentrated in the north • Most of the population was in the north, therefor the north had most of the representation in congress • The south was very much an appendage 5. High degree of poverty • Per captia income lower than the national average • This was especially true in regards to theAA population • This is one of the reasons for the great migration • They were not just fleeing Jim Crow, they were also attempting to free from great poverty • Reasons for high poverty are many and varied • The economy of the south was destroyed • (During the civil war) • Took a long time to rebuild it’s economy • Because it was a colonial appendage, the banks and institutions of the north failed to provide capital to the south • The economic structure was narrow, un-diverse, based on agriculture (doesn’t create good incomes) • Until the 1930 the lack of federal intervention into the social welfare system, the people in poverty had little to no help from the government in any way The ‘Triumphant’ New South 1. Natural resources • Exploitation of oil lumbers, sun, etc. • The rise of a powerful, prosperous new region o This is based on the decline/deindustrialization of the manufacturing belt o Build on the fact that Detroit, Chicago, etc. are not landing grounds for immigrants 2. Population growth • Both migrants and immigrants move to the sunbelt • Immigrants had traditionally gone to the north, this has been reversed, rather they are going to the south 3. Rapid urbanization • Sunbelt cities are the fastest growing ones in the country • Development of well-developed urban system • Cities such asAtlanta are the: o Focus of growth in many economic sectors o Coordinator of regional markets o Node connecting the New South to the rest of the USA and the world  Ex. Miami plays a key role in connecting the United States to Latin America 4. Rapid economic growth: • Gained many new economic sectors • 1947-87: industrial growth rate = 120% • It’s not just manufacturing, service centers, etc. are also developing o Growth in many sectors, including traditional and high-tech industrial as well as financial areas • Economic growth: o What are the advantages of the industrial south?  Low wages and non-unionized labor • People get paid less for the same work • Profit seeking capitalists love this  Growing (affluent) market 5. Modernization of agriculture • Mechanization and science o This changes the food that we eat and the way in which farming is done o Farming is now a more organized, large scale, production system o Serves international and regional markets o All sorts of new agricultural products are being grown in the south now o Large corporations are now controlling what is grown  This rests on very cheap labor o An example of this would be Florida’s postwar citrus industry 6. Marketing and selling of the South • Variety of institutions have attracted capital investment to the South • Grantham’s “selling of the south” illustrates this well • How was this done? o Giving of free land o Labor conditions o Right to work o Hostility to unions o Pro-business  Making of good business climate o Attempted to make better educational opportunities o Put money into research and development 7. Federal policy and spending since the 1930s • Labor: improved wages and working conditions • Agriculture: accelerate modernization • Energy: support domestic production • Transpiration: integrate regions (highway systems, etc.) • Result: the sunbelt incorporated into the ‘modern’ USA Texas and the Golden Crescent • Defense industry and military bases • Petro-chemical and multipliers • Houston: o The oil capital ofAmerica (and the world) o Financial, commercial and manufacturing center • Southern Texas o Major petrochemical complex Concluding Remarks: o Uneven development and the transformation of regional economies o The sunbelt is a postwar phenomenon o Sunbelt grown at the expense of the manufacturing belt o Result of a complex set of processes and actors Part Two: The Gunbelt Question: What is the Gunbelt? What has been its impact on the Sunbelt? Structure: Spending jobs and community What is the Gunbelt? Why did it emerge? Effects on southern communities Spending: Jobs and Communities o The military is one of the largest, if not the largest, single spending category o There has been increases and decreases of defense spending overtime o America’s share of global military production is significant o Large recipient of both private and public research and development (R&D) investment o Ex. Professors get $ from the military to do research for them  Similarly, corporations also get these opportunities o Spending o Military generates a huge number of direct and indirect jobs o 1991: 5.1 million jobs in defense 2004: basically the same #s o a large number of communities are dependent on military spending  Stimulates local economies  Funds are diverted from other places and spending areas What is the Gunbelt? o The region with a heavy concentration of military production, institutions, facilities and expertise o Prime contract: government makes a contract with a specific private corporation to supply their goods o See chart in slides o Break down of manufacturing belt into the Gunbelt o It stretches from new England through to Carolina’s and Texas all the way up through LA, Phoenix, Denver, all the way up to Seattle. o Aspecialized and a new geography of production have developed since the 1950’s. o Asmall number of states account for a significant share of national production o a few key metropolitan centers account for large share of the nation’s production o We see a development of not just states, but metropolitan areas Why did the Gunbelt emerge? 1. Flee old locations o Create new complexes away from older sites with established labor and production practices 2. Promotional activities o By states, countries and cities o LosAngeles has the greatest cluster of defense manufacturing o The local municipalities and land developers went out of their way to attract these corporations 3. Strategic o Perceived vulnerability of certain areas 4. Military infighting o Army, navy and air force were fighting each other for more resources o Air force became the most dominant o Changes regional distribution of military contracts 5. Strong agglomeration tendencies centered on: o Skilled labor o Information Gunbelt’s Effects on Southern Communities: o Increasing amount of educational facilities o Defense dependent  Many southern communities that are defense dependent  Military bases near small towns, and that small town is dependent on the expenditures of that military base  The closing of military bases could create a massive political storm because it would cause economic hardship to these communities o Slow impact, few multipliers, high costs o Polarized labor force  Large center of the population don’t have good incomes, where highly educated sector does o Positive effects?  Uneven development- areas of despair in the sunbelt  Havens of growth, but doesn’t produce good incomes or good jobs o Problems?  Sectorial dependence  Environmental impacts: over-exploitation and population= problems  Urban: facing the same urban problems as the manufacturing belt GGR254 Lecture Feb 27 Racial Segregation Question: What is residential segregation and why does it continue to be a significant dimension of the modern metropolis? • The 1922 Los Angeles Riots • Residential Segregation- what is it? • Three dimensions of segregation • The persistence of segregation 1992 La Riots: • What happened? • Violence and damage in various parts of the city • Mobilization of the police and the army = police states • Bush administration explained the riots in two ways o 1. Gangs  LA gangs used the King verdict as pretext to cause damage o 2. Social assistance:  Welfare programs which developed out of the Johnson’s War on Poverty considered to be central to the riots • Little evidence for Bush’s assertions o Gangs were not heavily involved o Assistance programs had been reduced • One alternative explanation looks at several dynamics: police abuse • Other explanations: economic disinvestment and dismantling of safety net • Finally, segregation o Social distance  Enduring feature of urbanAmerica  Social distance in space o Territoriality  “Attempt to establish some form of control, dominance or exclusivity: within a localized area” (KNOX)  Symbol of group membership  Means to regulate distance + interaction o Chicago 1957  Chicago is a fragmented/segregated world • Race and ethnic districts • Public housing • Class districts • Intersection of class, race and ethnicity • Three dimensions of Segregation: o 1. Social class  class structure establishes access to resources  class is socially reproduced and sustains existing structures of power and wealth o Household type  Segregation is correlated to life cycle and life style o Race and ethnicity  Groups separated due to racial and ethnic discrimination  Fulfills several functions • Why does segregation persist? o Continued existence of social and economic inequalities and racism o Ability of people and groups to provide:  Social contracts  Collective social control o Political voice: rally together over issues Concluding remarks: • Segregation: key feature of urban life • Divides by race, ethnicity and class • Used for political ends • Range of cultural and economic functions Part 2: The Second Ghetto Question: What is the second Ghetto and how it is a product of the systematic geographic segregation of African Americans from the rest of theAmerican urban population? • What is the second ghetto? • The dynamics of racial segregation • Miami, 1940-1960 Second Ghetto • “US is the first large nation in the history of the world wealthy enough to end poverty within its borders” • “Every American should have a decent home.. in a suitable environment” (1949 housing act) • First ghetto develops after 1890 o Expansion of the original ghetto created between 1890-1940 o Increasing role of the government o Racially homogeneous o Two separate worlds o Socially heterogeneous o Place of resistance Dynamics of Segregation: • Racism: informal and formal • Wealth, income, statue o Ongoing economic inequality has created and reinforced black economic status o Government transfers  Fundamental changes to the role of the state • Erosion of government income and social assistance transfers • Curtailment of many programs • Felt most severely by those at the lower end of the social scale o Conservative ideology:  Changing ideology as conservative ideas and ‘neo-liberalism’ became more dominant  “The social warfare system is an outmoded social dinosaur” (Reagan 1982) o Access to housing:  Dual housing market • Race is rooted in space  Practices and codes: from blockbusting to violence  Role of federal housing policy • Intervention ▯ segregation • Absence of national policy  Shifting capital investment: white suburbs + gentrified areas = investment  Shifting capital investment: black areas = disinvestment and decline • Miami’s Second Ghetto o Original concentrations are in Overtown and Coconut Grove o Replaced by Liberty City, Brownsville and Opa-locka o Public policy  Federal and other levels of government became increasingly involved in the urban housing market  1937: housing act – initiated large-scale public housing construction  1949: housing act- linked urban renewal and public housing  1965- housing act- increased privatization of low-income housing  1992- Hope VI program- replace low-income areas with mixed income o African American Search for housing  AA push for (better) housing and face extreme hostile white response  Legree family experience • Typical experience in Miami • Bought a house in white subdivision of Orchard Villa 1957 • Hate mail and harassing phone calls threatening to bomb the house • Seaboard white citizens council organized daily pickets outside their house
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