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Final Exam revision.docx

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Romila Verma

Final Exam revision Section A Lecture 3 PrecipitationPrecipitation can be snow rain hail and sleetAt the surface precipitation can become Surface water runoff if infiltration rate is low Surface water storage glacial ice Water for plants Groundwater or evaporatedOceans account for 90 of total evaporationNinety percent of water evaporated from the ocean falls back on ocean as rain and the remaining 10 is carried by prevailing winds over continentsEvaporation is highest near the equator as direct sunlight produces the greatest heat budgetsAir at the equator rises cools and falls as rain forming rainforests at the equatorCooler drier air descends along Tropics of Cancer and CapricornCauses evaporative losses and creates desertsIn some parts of the Chilean Desert no rain has fallen in recorded historyAt the other end of the scale some parts of subHimalayan India have received up to 22 m of rainfall in a single yearLiving near the ocean doesnt mean access to lots of precipitationThe three types of precipitation mechanisms are Frontal and cyclonic Convectional orographicLearn what the three are Water balanceWater balance calculation as proposed by Thornthwaite in 1948 is defined as the change in volume of the permanent pool resulting from the total inflow minus the total outflow actual or potential This calculations help determine if a drainage area is large enough or if it has the right characteristics to support a permanent pool of water during average or extreme conditionsWater balance calculationV Inflow OutflowWhereVtotal volume of waterInflowSum of all inflows over a period of timeOutflowSum of all outflows over a period of time GroundwaterGround water is a term used to refer to water beneath the land surface Ground water may reside in the spaces between earth materials such as sand silt or clay particles Where there is rock ground water can reside in rock openings such as fractures in granite Surface water commonly is hydraulically connected to groundwater however the interactions are difficult to observe and measureGroundwater on the other hand moves along flow paths of varying lengths in transmitting water from areas of recharge to areas of dischargeNaturally occurring process of downward water migration is called groundwater rechargeUnsaturated versus saturated zone groundwaterDividing line between these two zoneswater tableStudy groundwater contaminationWater qualityWater quality can be thought of as a measure of the suitability of water for a particular use based on selected physical chemical and biological characteristicsWater is never absolutely pure AND each component of water cycle changes quality Natural and human activities impact the quality of water To determine water quality scientists first measure and analyze characteristics of the water such as temperature dissolved mineral content and number of bacteriaSelected characteristics are then compared to numeric standards and guidelines to decide if the water is suitable for a particular useTo a scientist water quality is determined by the types and amounts of substances dissolved and suspended in the water and what those substances do to inhabitants of the ecosystem It is the concentrations of these substances that determine the water quality and its suitability for particular uses The most common dissolved substances in water are minerals or salts that as a group are referred to as dissolved solidsDissolved solids include common constituents such as calcium sodium bicarbonate and chloride plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus and trace elements such as selenium chromium and arsenicMeasuring the water quality can be done through water sampling temperature ph turbidity hardness dissolved oxygen inorganicorganic chemicals Lecture 4 Urban water useresidential needsnonresidential needsdistribution system needs
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