ggr339 exam notes

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR339H1
Professor
Stephen Chuang
Semester
Spring

Description
Term DenionsBoosterism The act of boosng or promong a town city or organisaon with the goal of improving public percepon of itBoosng can be as simple as talking up the enty or as elaborate as establishing a visitors bureauIn polical sengs it can be used in regard to disputed policies or controversial eventsLecureWeek 7 Urban TalentsKnowledge WorkersPlaceBased Wealth Creaon Phillip Kotler markeng management cies must invest in essenal public infrastructureurban boosterism In Jamie Pecks Crique of Creave Cies he believed that it is nothing more htat oldfashioned boosterismUrban Renewal A program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land useIt involves the relocaon of businesses and people demolion of structures and the use of eminent domainIts seen by proponents as an economic engine and a reform mechanism and by crics as a mechanism for controlWhile it may enhance exisng communies in some cases it results in the demolion of neighbourhoodsCurrently its an integral part of many local governments oen combined wsmall and big business incenves Today it is more policy based less on destrucon and more on renovaoninvestmentBusiness Development Area AKA Central Business DistrictLecureWeek 3 The Polical Life of CiesUrban division of labour agglomeraon economies are crical access to other rms Places like CBD have mulple complimentary business acvies that support each otherThe informaon revoluoncustomised exible economy have allowed business consumersentrepreneurs to move to the exurbsThe result is an urban geography dominated by connuous urban networks that encompass thousands of square milestens of millions of peopleNew Middle Class Socioeconomic class falling in between the upper and working classIncluded as belonging to the middle class are professionals managers and senior civil servantsThe chief dening characterisc of membership in the middle class is possession of signicant human capital knowledge habits socialpersonality aributes including creavity cognive abilies embodied in the ability to perform labour so as to produce economic valueProfessionalmanagerial class is disnguished from other social classes by their trainingeducaon typically business qualicaonsuniversity degreesExample occupaons include academics teachers social workers engineers manager nurses and middlelevel administratorsPlanned Shrinkage A controversial public policyIts the deliberate withdrawal of city services to blighted neighbourhoods as a means of coping with shrinking tax revenuesIt involves decreasing services such as police patrols garbage removal street repairs and re protecon from selected neighbourhoods suering from urban decay crimepovertyNot to be confused with shrink to survive which demolishes already empty neighbourhoods to return them to rural useAdvocates of planned shrinkage say it is used as a way concentrate services for maximum eecveness during budgetary constraints but its crics say its an aempt to encourage the exodus of undesirable populaons to open up blighted neighbourhoods for development by private interestsEyes on the Street Jane Jacobs theoryIn crical response to 1960s urban planning policies which zoned separate areas throughout the city for residenal commercialindustrial areas Jacobs believed that these iniaves increased crimeruined the social frameworkvitality necessary for a prosperous communityHer eyes on the street theory advocates the use of high density mixeduse communies to smulate street tracShe argued that increased street trac daynight not only help communies ourish sociallyeconomically but also acts as a selfpolicing which deters criminalansocial behaviourHer theory holds that populated areas are less likely to have criminal acvity if the criminal believes there is a greater likelihood of him being seen or caught by othersUrban planners can beer plan residenalcommercial spaces that encourage street acvity and thus reduce crimeKerner Commission Was conducted in response to the riong in the late 1960sRiots in the black nighbourhoods of major US cies Los Angeles Was Riot 1965 Chicago Division Street Riots 1966 Newark Newark Riots 1967 and Detroit 1967 Its nding was that the riots resulted from black frustraon at the lack of economic opportunityIt cricized federalstate governments for failed housing redlining educaonsocial service policiesIts results suggested that one main cause of urban violence was white racism and suggested that white America bore much of the responsibility for black riong and rebellion It called to create new jobs construct new housing and put a stop to de facto segregaon in order to wipe out the destrucve gheo environment In order to do so the report recommended for government programs to provide needed services to hire more diverse and sensive police forces and most notably to invest billions in housing programs aimed at breaking up residenal segregaon The reports most infamous passage warned Our naon is moving toward two sociees one black one whiteseparate and unequal
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