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GGR361H1 - Final Exam Study.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

GGR361H1 – Understanding Urban Landscape Final Exam Study Notes The Iconic Urban Landscape/New Urbanism & Suburbs Iconic Urbanism Sklair Two defining characteristic • Famous (building, design/plan, architect) • Special aesthetic significance/meaning for a culture and/or a time o Unique combination (fame + significance) o Persistence –not necessarily for ever o Can be iconic before being built Two contrasting meanings • Iconic I o icon as representation, recognised ‘type’or stereotypical copy (e.g. mosque, cathedral (e.g. “It looks like what it is supposed to be”) • Iconic II o something unique, different; intended to be famous, even before being built Historical Context • Pre-global era (e.g. pre-1950s) – production of icons by the state and/or religion • Contemporary era – production of icons increasingly driven by the corporate sector Iconic architecture + globalization • Electronic revolution: computer - aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) • Postcolonial revolution: ‘Western’architects designing for clients in developing countries • Transnational social spaces: could be almost anywhere in the world • Cosmopolitanism: ‘starchitects’and cities Transnational Capital Class (TCC) • Corporate fraction – corporations/affiliates • State fraction – globalizing politicians and bureaucrats • Technical fraction – globalizing professionals • Consumerist fraction – merchants and media Three basic questions • Iconic for whom? Professional icons vs. public icons • Iconic for where? - Local, national, and global icons • Iconic for when? Pre-global era (e.g. before the 1950s) vs. the global era Rybczynski • Rise of ‘starchitecture’, ‘showcase architecture’, ‘emblematic architecture’ • Icons not new (e.g. Eiffel Tower) • Architecture and advertising, commerce • Forces driving public appetite: prosperity; civic ambition, confidence in the future; sense that era needs its own form of expression • “While other constructions – an improved subway system, a new airport, a shopping complex – have contributed to the city’s rejuvenation, the Guggenheim Museum deserves the lion’s share of the credit.” Bilbao Effect • [T]he ability of a work of architecture to single - handedly put a city on the map. • Bilbao Anomaly o The success of the Guggenheim ‘has proved difficult to replicate’. • Examples o Frank Gehry Rock – and - Roll Museum (Seattle) o Most post - Bilbao museums see increase in visitors in Year 1, levelling off by Years 2 - 3 o Libeskind’s Art Museum (Denver) – anticipated 1 million visitors (650,000 actual) New Urbanism and Suburbs Benefits of suburbs • More land ownership (homes), not renting • Better quality of life/unique • Less air pollution (lack of industry) • Greater political unification (similar social standing, neighbourhood needs) • Greater social assimilation (homogeneity) • Quieter, less chaotic (less traffic) • Lower land rents for businesses, more affordable housing Critiques of suburbs • Rising use of the car (old and young are more dependent) • Lack of public transit • Distinct lack of character (homogenous) • Separation of uses (land, housing, commercial, recreational) • Suburbs as ‘escape’from urban problems • Promote segregation (race, income) • Less belonging to the city as a whole Grant – • New urbanism communities successful achieving attractive mix use, open space system, mix housing types, high design standards, walkable environment; less success establishing viable commercial districts, increasing urban densities providing affordable housing or reducing reliance on automobiles • Municipal government promotes urban intensification, high design standards • New urbanism communities concentrated around largest cities, also areas experiencing rapid growth and high housing costs → this is true in Calgary but with the growth Calgary is experiencing they expect more new urbanism communities but this is not the case therefore it suggest that some regions more receptive to the concept than other perhaps difference in local political cultures • Town house constitutes most of the housing types in high cost parts of Canada • Successful project Garrison wood in Calgary – 10 mins from city • Urban redevelopment doing well in the city • New urbanism resonates better for those who want to live in the city • Communities of new urbanism successfully achieved o Creating a mix of housing types at the project level o Developing a mix of uses that include residential commercial, and open space o Establishing architectural and urban design standards that improve the quality of the public realm o Creating attractive and functional open space systems o Improving the quality of pedestrian environment • Less success in following areas o Achieving a mix of housing types at the block-face scale o Establishing viable commercial districts within the project o Including a reasonable share of affordable housing in the absence of gov’t policy and funding o Enhancing project densities above twelve units per acre o Creating communities that do not rely on the automobile o Developing fully connect street systems Harris and Larkman Two myths about suburbs • Arecent phenomenon - emphasis on inter-war suburbs in the UK, post-war suburbs in North America (esp. 1950s); • Generic in character –take the same form everywhere Suburban origins • sub urbe = beneath/below (the ‘urbe’) • urbs = nucleus (later, the ‘town’) Form of suburbs • Myth: generic, uniform, bland, monotonous • Origins: growing semi-detached suburbs of the inter-war period (UK); 1950s in North America • Perpetuated in literature, music, academia Five dimensions of suburbs 1. Peripheral location 2. Residential character 3. Low densities, decentralized, owner-occupation 4. Distinctive culture 5. Separate community identities **article say new census data shows Canadian suburbs rule – communities with the most growth in 2006-2011 are suburbs • 13.2 millions live in suburbs • 13.7 million live in downtown cores Grant Variations • Neo-traditional development • Traditional neighbourhood design (TND) • New urbanism (North America) • Urban Villages/Traditional Urbanism (UK, EU) • Urban renaissance • Smart Growth Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk • Architects and academics (Miami) • Founded DPZ & Co. (1980) • Congress for the New Urbanism (1993) • Advanced critique of sprawl • Introduce new approaches (e.g. charrettes) • 40+ communities in Canada (Grant and Bohdanow, 2008) Reaction to suburban landscape • Segregated land uses • Residential focus • Affluent (no rental, affordable units) • Car-dominated environments • Disregard for pedestrians • No public realm, sense of community New urbanist principles • Mixed uses • Mixed housing types • Compact form • Attractive public realm • Pedestrian-friendly streetscapes • Defined centres and edges • Transportation options, grid system of streets Victims’of Suburbia • Cul-De-Sac Kids • Soccer Moms • Bored Teenagers • Stranded Elderly • Weary Commuters • The Immobile Poor Cornell Community, Markham • 500 acre site, formerly earmarked for airport • 10,000 units; population: 30,000 • DPZ masterplanners, conceptual vision • Six main neighbourhoods • 5-minutes walking radius Intellectual Leaders 1)Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk(DPZ) Congress of the New Urbanism (CNU) – North American focus (from 1980s) 2)Leon Krier –‘Godfather’of new urbanism; architect of Poundbury, work for HRH The Prince of Wales, Prince’s Foundation for Building Community(PFBC) Leon Krier • Architect (born in Luxembourg, 1946) • Critique of contemporary cities, modernism • Inspired by pre-industrial townscapes • Urban Villages Group (1989) –UK • Congress for New Urbanism (CNU) – US Urban village • Size limit: 3,000-5,000 people, 100 acres, areas within walking distance (10 min. walk) • Mix of building types/sizes/uses • Balance of homes : workplaces (1:1 ratio) • Architectural style: determined by locality • Mix of affordable and owner-occupied units • Promote alternatives to the automobile Poundbury, UK • Urban extension of Dorchester • Duchy of Cornwall land • 20+year project (1993-2020) • Four phases (5,000 residents; 155 ha) • Affordable housing (35%) Critiques of new urbanism • Emphasis on architectural appearance • Emphasis on selective, idealized past • Post-industrial needs can differ from pre-industrial (see Ellin, 1999) • Too expensive, not affordable • Still building suburbs, just look different • People still drive and need cars From Principles to Projects • Analysis of 40+ new urbanist communities within Canada • Some principles more difficult to achieve: mixing housing types, commercial uses, density increases, grid street systems, lanes and alleys • Developers ‘pick and choose’design features Examples • McKenzie Towne –Phases 3 onwards departed from new urbanist model • East Riverside, Windsor –front garages, no alleys, separated land uses • Bois Franc, Montreal –golf course added, dwelling units reduced • Cornell, Markham as success story TheAccessible Urban Landscape Disability in Canada (2006) • People with disabilities comprise 14.4% of the population (approximately 4.4 million people) • Top 3 types of disability in Canada of adult population – pain, mobility, agility • Disability increases dramatically at 45-64 years (from 25-44 years → 8% to 18.3) • Highest - 75+ years → 56.3% Disability and Poverty (2006) • 10.5% overall poverty rate for Canadian adults poverty rate for Canadians with disabilities 14.4% Palmer Poverty-Disability Relationship • Complex relationship between disability and poverty (two-way) • Poverty as outcome of disability: lower earning capacity, expenses attributed to disability can drain resources, care/assistance by other family members can also drain household labour/spending • Poverty as cause of disability: poor nutrition, health care, living and working standards Case Study #1:Accessibility and “Shared Space” • Ontario contest to alter wheelchair logo finds now winner o Selected Public Reaction  “Waste of time and money.”  “Why change a good thing.”  “Why would you want to change a symbol that everyone understands? What is flawed about the one we are using now?”  “If we need to update this - then what's next, changing the symbol for male / female on washrooms? What about the pedestrian signs on crosswalks.” Shared Space as Inclusive? Focus on vision-impaired people and physical design of the built environment Issues: people do not like to travel alone; feelings of vulnerability due to lack of legible physical features in the street (pavements, curbs) Policies/programmes to shape urban environments lack attention to needs of people with sensory impairments Built environment –reflects norms of the ‘able body’ What is Shared Space? Traffic engineering concept increasingly used in UK and other developed countries Goal: eliminate physical barriers that separate vehicles, pedestrians and other road users to encourage/facilitate sharing space No one road user is prioritised Reduce delineation between sidewalks, roads; often removal of street signs, signals, curbs No single way of producing shared space Complete Streets Why Complete Streets? Streets can address wider issues: Transportation capacity – traffic congestion issues Safety of the road network – vehicle-cycle collisions Transportation and social equity – many people in low income neighbourhoods have few transportation options Health and wellness – opportunities for active transportation can address rising rates of obesity and inactivity levels (especially for children) Findings Visually impaired people prefer more structured environments Guide dogs cannot navigate shared spaces easily Lack of input and participation from visually impaired groups Importing design solutions from other contexts (e.g. corduroy paving) without knowledge or evidence of effectiveness Focus on attractiveness, less on performance by users Difficult to navigate, loss of bodily control by visually impaired users Feelings of: threat, exposure to risk, vulnerability Conclusions Shared space presumes all street users can negotiate access to/use space Primacy of the eye, sensory perception based on vision = key to ease of navigation Shared space as ‘disabling by design’for vision-impaired people Do not differentiate between different categories of disabled people Diverse ways in which impaired bodies interact with/in designed environment Potential withdrawal from shared space Case #2: Transportation SOCIAL EXCLUSION the lack or denial of resources, rights, goods and services, and the inability to participate in the normal relationships and activities, available to the majority of people in a society, whether in economic, social, cultural or political arenas. It affects both the quality of life of individuals and the equity and cohesion of society as a whole.’(Levitas et al., 2007: 9) TRANSPORT-RELATED SOCIAL EXCLUSION ‘[It is] The process by which people are prevented from participating in the economic, political and social life of the community because of reduced accessibility to opportunities, services and social networks, due in whole or part to insufficient mobility in a society and environment built around the assumption of high mobility’(Kenyon et al., 2003: 210) Seven Main Categories 1)Physical exclusion – barriers (transport system, built environment) 2)Geographical exclusion – location of residence influences access 3)Exclusion from facilities – distance to key facilities prevents access 4)Economic exclusion – high monetary costs of travel 5)Time-based exclusion – other responsibilities reduces time available for travel 6)Fear-based exclusion – concerns for personal safety preclude use 7)Space exclusion – management of space prevents access Fear and the Urban Landscape Modern and postmodern fear – Ellin, 2003 Form follows fear Rise of individual homes, gated communities Appropriation of public space by private agencies Gating, signage controlling older public spaces Enclosure of public space Policing and surveillance systems Neotraditionalurbanism/historicism/nostalgia • “The contemporary built environment offers a dwindling supply of meaningful public space and that which exists is increasing controlled by various forms of surveillance and increasingly invested with private meanings.” – Ellin 2003 • “In cities like LosAngeles, on the bad edge of postmodernity, one observes an unprecedented tendency to merge urban design, architecture and the police apparatus into a single, comprehensive security effort.”(Davis, 2006) Fearful areas of the city Queen’s Park at night Jane and Finch Parks/public space at night Regent Park Bus/subway/train stations (at night) Parts of Parkdale (near halfway houses) Scadding Court (Bathurst and Dundas) Lawrence Heights What are we afraid of? Issues regarding class, race, ethnicity Violence (gun/other) – reported or not Perception of neighbourhood versus reality Reputation/stigma – media and other sources Being followed (fear of assault) Isolation (e.g. Bus shelters), lighting The unexpected (negative), unknown Income levels/class divisions Fear defined • The emotion of pain or uneasiness caused by the sense of impending danger; a state of anxiety derived from the concern for the safety of a person or thing.” What are we afraid of? • “Difference is now seen as overwhelming and dangerous, to be excluded or segregated where possible – indeed, something to be afraid of.’– Bannister and Fyfe, 2001 Fear and cities • “Fear, just like crime, can be portrayed as having damaged the fabric of cities, to have adversely affected the quality of urban life.” – Bannister and Fyfe, 2001 • “Town building has always contended with the need for protection from danger.” – Ellin, 2003 Modern fear and urbanism (Renaissance – 1960) 1)Feudalism → capitalism (Bentham’s panopticon) • The round prison, in the middle there is a tower, the person in the tower can see everything but others around the circle can’t – there is also special lighting 2)Redevelopment of capital cities (e.g. Haussmann’s Paris) 3)Transformations in interior design: new house forms, separate rooms/activities 4)Fear of rapid change, industrialization – control of time, time management 5)Separation of functions (e.g. zoning) Post-modern fear and urbanism(1960s-1990s) 1)Retribalization–emphasis on cultural distinctions, segregated communities, retirement communities, separatism 2)Nostalgia –renovation of old houses/ buildings, ‘country living’, loft-living, neotraditionalism 3)Escapism -gated communities, security signage, suburban malls, edge cities, theme parks (Ellin, 2003) Gated Communities Defintion • “Gated communities are housing developments on private roads that are closed to general traffic by a gate across the primary access. These developments may be s
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