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GGR107H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Overgrazing, Integrated Geography, Health Promotion


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR107H1
Professor
Sarah Wakefield
Study Guide
Final

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GGR107: Exam Review Notes
Lecture 2:
Chapter 1: A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking Steps:
1: Adopt the attitude of a critical thinker (open-mindness, healthy skeptism, intellectual
humility, free thinking, high motivation
2: Recognize and avoid critical thinking hindrances
Basic human limitations (bias, ignorance, prejudices, emotional hindrances, etc.)
Use of language (ambiguity, doublespeak jargon, false implications, etc.)
Faulty logic or perception (superstition, false analogies, irrelevant comparisons, etc.)
Psychological and sociological pitfalls (emotional appeals, lawsuit censorship, wishful
thinking, self-deception, etc.)
3. Identify and characterize arguments (argument= reason + conclusion)
4. Evaluate information sources (Does the source have necessary qualifications to make the
claim?)
5. Evaluate arguments (unwarranted assumption)
Chapter 2: Introduction
What is Geography?
The study of spatial variation, of how-and why- physical and cultural items differ from
place to place on the surface of the earth
KEY THEMES
1. Nature/Culture/System
the ways humans and nature are organized; the systems and structures (both
environmental and social) that arrange our lives
the ways that “nature” contributes to (and is created by) culture
2. Interactions and Interdependence Change and Continuity
relationships within and among human and natural systems
how system components connect with, adapt to, and have an impact on one another
how and why things change (or stay the same) over time
3. Power and Governance
where “rules” come from, what they do, and how they are enforced
how particular social groups (or aspects of the environment, such as animals or
biospheres) gain influence or privilege over others
how concepts such as fairness or justice can be applied to social and environmental
issues
Geographic Sub-disciplines
1. “Physical” geography
hydrology, geomorphology, climatology, etc.
2. “Human” geography
social, cultural, historical, urban, economic, industrial, medical/health, etc.

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3. “Environmental” geography
4. “Regional” geography
specific area or region
DEFINITIONS:
Environmental determinism: how humans interact with their environment, assumed that the
environment largely determined human activities and landscapes
Possibilism: the environment places some limits on human activities, must consider the choices made
bu people in response to the opportunities and constraints provided by the environment
Probabilism: third perspective of human-environment interactions, and lies between environmental
determinism and possibilism
Relative Location: the position of a place in relation to that of other places or activies
Site: an absolute location concept, refers to the physical and cultural characteristics and attributes of
the place itself
Absolute Distance: the special separation between two points on the earth’s surface measure by some
accepted standard unit
Relative Distance: transforms those linear measurements into other units more meaningful for the
space relationship in question
Connectivity: implying all the tangible and intangible ways in which places are connected
Spatial Diffusion: process of dispersion of an idea or an item from a center of origin to more distant
points with which it is directly or indirectly connected
Lecture 3
Chapter 3: Agricultural Systems
Environmental Constraints of Agriculture
Access to solar energy for photosynthesis (photo period, shading)
Temperature
Water availability and quality
Soil characteristics (depth, texture, acidity)
Soil nutrient availability
Inherent biological characteristics of plants and animals (adaptation)
Possible Criteria for Identifying Agri-ecosystem Types
Access to solar energy for photosynthesis (photo period, shading)
Temperature
Water availability and quality
Soil characteristics (depth, texture, acidity)
Soil nutrient availability
Inherent biological characteristics of plants and animals (adaptation)
Agricultural System Types
Nomadic herding
Livestock ranching

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Shifting cultivation
Rudimentary sedentary tillage
Intensive subsistence tillage (with or without padi rice)
Commercial plantation farming
Commercial grain farming
Commercial livestock and crop farming
Commercial dairy farming
Specialized horticulture
Soil Formation
The formation of one inch of soil takes approximately 500 years (much variation!)
Underlying rock is broken down through physical, chemical, or biological weathering
Factors: climate, organisms, topographical relief, parent material, time
Soil Nutrients
Primary macronutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium
Secondary macronutrients: Calcium, Magnesium, Sulphur
Micronutrients: boron, copper, iron, chloride, manganese, molybdenum, zinc
DEFINITIONS:
Agriculture: “The active production of useful plants or animals in ecosystems that have been created by
people. Agriculture may include cultivating the soil, growing and harvesting crops, and raising livestock”
(Brittanica Concise Encyclopedia)
Agri-ecosystem: “an ecological and socio-economic system, comprising domesticated plants and/or
animals and the people who husband them, intended for the purpose of producing food, fibre, or other
agricultural products” (Ch. 3)
Lecture 4:
Chapter 4: Soils and Agriculture
MODIFYING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS ON AGRICULTURE
1. Increased Energy for Photosynthesis
Reduce shading (remove trees, other competition)
Increase energy available for photosynthesis (grow lights)
Soil Erosion
Erosion the removal of material from one place and transport toward another by the action of
wind or water
Human-induced vulnerability through:
Clearing forests, esp. en masse or on slopes
Over-cultivating
Overgrazing
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