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GGR107H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Overgrazing, Potash, Intercropping

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Charles Z Levkoe
Study Guide

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Exam Review Lecture 4
o Understanding Agri-Ecosystems
o Agriculture: the production of “useful” crops
o Agri-ecosystem: the interaction between humans and the environment
o Key points of chapter 3
Relatively open human modified systems: bringing in a lot of seed input
and fertilizers
Physical environment fundamental to agriculture BUT economic, political,
socio-cultural and marketing are important in explaining farming systems
o Environmental constraints
Access to amount of solar energy
Water availability
Soil characteristics
o Depth
o Texture
o Acidity
Soil nutrients
Inherent biological characteristics of plants
o Soil formation
Long process that takes up about 500 years
Underlying rock can be broken down by erosion
Factors that cause this could be climate organism, parent material, time
o Soil texture
Loam is the best has a mixture of silt, sand and clay
Can determine different types of soils based on particle size, density
Sand is the biggest, silt is inbetween and clay is the smallest
o Soil acidity
Different amounts of acidity for different plants
o Soil nutrients
Primary macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium’
Secondary macronutrients: calcium, magnesium and sulphur
Micronutrients: boron, copper, iron, chloride, manganese, molbdenium
and zinc
o Human alterations to the agri-ecosystem
Control energy: increase amount of light, reduce the amount of shading
Control temperature: greenhouses
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