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Final

GGR124 Final Exam Notes for 2014 Dupy Class (S).docx


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR124H1
Professor
Damian Dupuy
Study Guide
Final

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2014-04-23
GGR121H1-Damin Dupuy (2014/S)
Lecture Notes
Lecture#1 : Introduction, Concepts and Context
Definitions of URBAN
oSubject of much debate and disagreement
oLouis Wirth (1938)- cities are large (take up space) , dense (populated), relatively permanent
settlements of socially heterogeneous people
oLewis Mumford (1961)- cities were a fundamental cultural institution
oBunting and Filion (2010)- places of intense social interaction and exchange between strangers
Characteristics of Urban
- Urban is a dense concentration (agglomeration) of people and activities
- Proximity, density, and diversity are key characteristics
Distance decay: you interact less the further away you move from it
Urbanization
oShifting population balance between urban and rural areas
oProportion of the total population that is living in urban place (Census: measure population change
over time, 81% of Canadian population lived in cities, has grown significantly over the last 100 yrs)
Deurbanization (reverse urbanization)
oBalance is shifting towards peripheral/rural areas
oRural population growth is higher than urban population growth
oGrowth rates are higher in the city than of outside the city.
Urban Hierarchy
oOrdering and ranking of urban place by population size or function
oCan change over years
o2011, Toronto was ranked number one b.c of its diverse economic structure, diversity in culture, pop
size etc
Metropolitanization
oThe largest urban areas are growing faster than smaller urban areas

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oPopulation is shifting up the urban hierarchy
oThe “greater golden horse shoe” one massive urban region
Suburbanization
oShifting population balance between suburban portions of metropolitan areas and the rest of the
country
oAreas on the edge of the urban core are getting larger
* Urban Sprawl- density in a city. Canadian cities are more dense than American cities.
Measuring Urban Places (4)
Urban places can be defined using a variety of different criteria. Example: size
Principle method used
oPopulation
Minimum size of settlement of agglomeration
Minimum density
Relying on population alone can be problematic
Measuring the number of people who occupy a location
Canadian cities are more dense/compact than US cities
oEconomic base
Minimum proportion of the labour force in non-agricultural occupations (service or
manufacturing)
Basic (city forming) and non-basic (city serving) goods and services.
Economic Base Theory: activities support city or allow city to grow (forming vs serving).
oAdministrative
Using some legal or administrative criteria
Comparative research is difficult
Physical and social extent of the city can extend far beyond the administrative
responsibility
oFunctional
Reflect the real extent of the urban influence (how the city actually functions)
Census data expressed in terms of functional definition
Metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in the US
Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) in Canada- 147 of these in Canada
oArea consisting of one or more neighboring municipalities situated around
a core. A census metropolitan area must have a total population of at least
100,000 of which 50,000 or more live in the core. A census agglomeration
must have a core population of at least 10,000.
oPeel, York, Durham, Metropolitan Toronto
oGTA: everything from Milton in Halton to Uxbridge in Durham

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oGreater golden horseshoe: takes on regions beyond halton and Durham
(economic definition)
The economics region can extend into buffalo and Michigan?
Understanding Urban Geography
Understand/interpret the distribution of town and cities
Account for the differences and similarities between them and within them
Two Key Themes
oSpatial distribution of towns and cities-system of cities
oInternal structure of the city- city as a system
Discipline is eclectic/diverse
3 Disciplines of Urban Geography
Descriptive
oRecognition and description of the urban area’s internal structure-patterns and processes
Interpretive
oExamining how people understand and react to these patterns and processes
Explanatory
oLooks for the origins of these patterns
5 Approaches on Urban Geography
Environmentalism
oDominate up to the mid 20th century
oLooking at the relationship between people and their environment
oSite and situation studies: physical characters determine urban development
Ex. neighbours located along a river, beach.
How does this effect social/economic processes?
Urban Morphology: how urban areas have grown and changed over time
Recent work concentrates on the production, form and design of urban areas
Analyzing evolution of the city by building types
How does change in physical form influence interactions
Positivism
oGeneral paradigm shift in the 1950’s
oHuman behaviour is determined or influence by scientific and universal laws
oHow scientific laws produced observed patterns of urban activity or form on the ground
*BURGESS MODEL
o2 broad approaches of Positivism
Ecological
Human behaviour is based on ecological principles
Most powerful groups obtain the most advantageous place in a given space
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