GGR124H1 Study Guide - Gated Community, Securitization, Urban Density

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Published on 9 Dec 2011
Course Concepts
Securitization of Cities
Extent: how important is security and how extensive are efforts
to securitize space
Contestation: what does security mean? Are there challenges to
securitizing urban space?
Effects: does it solve what it set out to solve? How does it change
urban space? What are the impacts on people’s sense of safety
and security?
Cities have long been centers for security and defense
In WWII, city centers were targets because they were so dense;
now, as part of planning, there is emphasis on dispersal and
Gives rise to gated communities; it was found that many people
like gated communities because they pose a less risk of
unwanted social exchange/encounters and a decline in their
property values
Public space has also seen an increase in security; cameras,
undercover police, security guards, etc.
Architecture has also changed in this form to make spaces seem
more ‘secure’ such as the new bus shelters which have lights
installed in them or the height of buildings proportionate to road
Changes in security in the US due to: anti-globalization protests
and warfare and terrorism
Four other types of security: bio-security [health issues like
SARS], human security [physical threats on people],
environmental security [natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina]
and system security [in response to the failure of energy grid
systems or transport systems]
Social and physical
During WW1, most cities had streetcars and disappeared after
WWII because automobile and oil companies were starting to
take over
Cities based on walking, transport or the car
oCities based on walking are very dense, urban density for
walking and rail is a bit more spaced out and those for the
automobile are very spaced out
Auto dependent cities: made it hard for those without a car to
get around, involved destroying streetcar lines in order to make
way for highways and in turn, the highway construction
destroyed homes and displaced people
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