GGR124H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Urban Renewal, Urban Geography, Utopia

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13 Jan 2011
De-industrialization 30 95 97 101
Poverty by Postal Code
Global City
Restrictive Covenants
Inner Suburb
Monster Homes
The Chicago School
Urban Renewal
Gated Community
W.E.B. Dubois
Post-industrial City
Economic Globalization
Concentric Zone McJob’
Push and Pull factors BOOOK Redlining New South
Points System ‘Creatures of the Province
PrecariousEmployment New Economy
7th Ward Sustainability
The concentric zone model was among the early descriptions of urban form. Originated
by Earnest Burgess in the 1920s, the concentric zone model represent the use of urban land as a
set of concentric rings with each ring devoted to a different land use. The model was based on
Burgesss observations of Chicago during the early years of the 20th century. Major routes of
transportation start from the city’s core, making the CBD the most accessible location in the city.
Burgess identified five rings of land use that would form around the CBD. These rings
were originally defined as the (1) central business district, (2) zone of transition, (3) zone of
independent workers’ homes, (4) zone of better residences and (5) zone of commuters.. He saw
Chicago as a city in an industrialized country, his idea was that city has one central area, and
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everything grows from that area, He gave the idea how the cities grow, how does growth and
change happen.
Burgess described the changing spatial patterns of residential areas as a process of
"invasion" and "succession". As the city grew and developed over time, the outward expansion of
the CBD would invade nearby residential neighbourhoods causing them to expand outward. The
process was thought to continue with each successive neighbourhood moving further from the
CBD. On the other hand, Burgess observed that there was a correlation between the distance
from the CBD and the wealth of the inhabited area; wealthier families tended to live much
further away from the Central Business District. He suggested that inner-city housing was largely
occupied by immigrants and households with low socio-economic status. He acknowledged that
the general, simplified pattern would be modified if applied to other cities (e.g. by terrain, routes
and other constraints); but he suggested that radial expansion along a broad front, stimulated by
invasion and succession, was a dominant process in the shaping of the pattern of a city. The
model has been challenged by many contemporary urban geographers. First, the model does not
work well with cities outside the United States, in particular with those developed under different
historical contexts.
Deindustrialization – Deindustrialization is a process of social and economic change
caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or
region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry. It involved both the
transformation of work and sectoral shifts in employemnet. IS ASSOCIATED with
=International change - Regional change - The urban landscape
3. G L O B A L C I T I E S
The concept of world city or global city focuses on the role of cities in the organization
intentional economic activity.
- Cities are not just growing; they are also key actors in globalization. The emerging global system relies on a
network of urban places A formerly national urban system is becoming a global urban system
- This is changing the relationships between cities, as well as the role of cities in a globalizing economy
- It is also changing the internal social and spatial organization of cities.Two aspects of a given city need to be
considered in order to understand its position within these networks: 1) the role of a city in global networks and 2)
the scale of its spatial dominance (regional, national, or global? - National states still play an important, though
reformed, role“World cities lie at the junction between world economy and the territorial nation state” (Friedmann &
Wolff 1982: 312).
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An area of the city which is a densely populated area in the city inhabited by a socially and
economically deprived minority. A class of people that is segregated in some way. Examples
would be rexdale area. The idea of ernest burges, the concentric zone model, could be the cause
of low income families moving outward. ‘Ghettos’ are created out of economic or social
pressure when a group experiences discrimination or oppression in the broader community [eg
discrimination in the housing market]. Ghettos are often heavily stigmatized and usually areas of
concentrated poverty
Urban renewal: - Strategic reuse of urban area of the city that is underused and often run down
due to forces of change and transition. Urban renewal schemes are usually planned
comprehensively under the direction of professional planners and at least partially funded by one
or more levels of government.
Urban Renewal
• An official policy of federal and state authorities responsible for housing and
urban development between the post WWII period and the early 1970s. Reflected dominant professional ideas at the
about causes and responses to decline.
• Often referred to by African American activists as
Negro Removal’, urban renewal was highly
racialized in its design and impact.
• It overwhelmingly targeted black neighbourhoods,
slating them for demolition.
• Can also refer to a more general process of
redeveloping neighbourhoods - ie. Edmontons
Downtown East.
• Its contemporary use is usually tied up with
gentrification projects
Gentrification: - The process whereby high-income households purchase and upgrade central-
city housing that once was occupied by residents of a significantly lower income. Today, some
would consider other kinds of residential upgrading such as condominium development as
The process by which low-cost, physically deteriorated neighbourhoods undergo physical renovation and an increase
in property values, along with an influx of wealthier residents who may displacxe the prior residents.
Precarious Employment
The other side of theNew Economy’
Work that has
Poor benefits
High levels of job insecurity
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