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Geography (100)
Midterm

Study guide for all the readings for the midterm


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR246H1
Professor
Joseph Laydon
Study Guide
Midterm

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Regional Geography
Study of a particular part of the world
People interacting with their economic, physical and social
environments place their imprint on the landscape
Finding out what makes a region tick
Geographers place more emphasis on the human side because the
physical environment is largely mediated through culture, economy
and technology
Regional self interest results in conflicts with other regions
Origins of Geographic Thought
Ancient Greeks
Geographers refer to regional identities as a sense of place
In Canada, there is no longer a sense of place from the Quebecios,
considering they perceive their place in Canada as more of a
partnership and some seek independence from Canada; division of
languages
Canadas Geographic Regions
Towards the margins of a region, its core characteristics become less
distinct and merge with those characteristics of a neighbouring region
Six geographic regions:
oAtlantic Canada
oQuebec
oOntario
oWestern Canada
oBritish Columbia
oTerritorial North
This is because Canada is quite large and needs to be divided into a set
of manageable segments, effort has been made to balance these regions
by their geographic size, economic importance and population size
which allows for comparisons
Canada, British Columbia and Quebec all are separate regions because
they have the geographic size, economic importance and population
size to form a separate region. They also are:
oReadily understood by Canadians
oAssociated with distinctive physical features, natural resources
and economic activities
oReflect the political structure of Canada
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oFacilitate the use of statistical data
oContain a sense of regional identity
oReveal regional economic strengths and cultural presence
Faultlines within Canada
“Stresses within Canadian society
Four major faultlines since Canada became a nation:
oEnglish and French
oCentralist and Decentralist
oOld and new Canadians
oAboriginal and non-Aboriginal
By seeking a compromise between these differing positions, Canada
has become a soft country, meaning a society where conflicts are more
often than not resolved through discussion and negotiations
Canada is evolving at a more rapid rate than other countries; four
factors that contribute to this rapid change:
oPopulation and economic power shifting from Atlantic Canada,
Quebec and even Ontario to Alberta and British Columbia-
because of a slowdown in manufacturing centered in Ontario
and Quebec
oPluralism in Canada: expanding phenomenon because of the
flood of non-Western immigrants into Canada- adjustments and
accommodation of the new-comers and their cultural/religious
practices are necessary for continued social harmony
oAboriginal people: outstanding land claims, rapidly growing
aboriginal population and increasing numbers of Native peoples
in Canadian cities are three issues that require attention
oIn 2006, the House of Commons declared that the Quebecios are
a nation within Canada
Canada must accommodate the new cultures arriving in Canada and
grip its core values while necessarily reinventing itself to meet new
circumstances
English-speaking/French speaking Canadians
Within Quebec, an internal faultline exists between separatists and
federalists
Separatists argue that Quebec cant fulfill its aspirations unless it
becomes a nation
Federalists say that Quebec can best flourish within the Canadian
federation
In 1977, bill 101 proclaimed French as the official language in Quebec
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for just about every facet of life: government, advertising, and business.
In 1982, the Supreme Court struck down this bill but it was overturned
later by using the notwithstanding clause
Centralist/Decentralist Faultline
Most of the 30 million people in Canada live or work in Ontario and
Quebec, in which both house the most manufacturing activities in
Canada
Other regions need the support of Ontario and Quebec in order to form
a political majority and without strong support they feel powerless
The feeling of powerlessness is the source of regional alienation-
Alberta fears that Ottawa will intrude into provincial power over
natural resources
Aboriginal Peoples and the Non-Aboriginal Majority
Aboriginals have had to deal with the settlement of their lands,
subjugation as colonized peoples and with Ottawas restrictive Indian
Act
Aboriginals form the largest proportion of the population in the
Territorial north and in the northern areas of the other geographic
regions
Newcomers and Old-timers
Early French and English settlers had a very difficult time adjusting to
the New World
In the early 20th century, immigrants came to settle the prairie lands of
Western Canada
It was difficult for non-English speaking immigrants from Central
Europe and Russia to gain a sense of rootedness and home
Old-timers were not always prepared to give ground and sometimes
react strongly to protect their status quo
Second generation of immigrant groups born and raised in Canada had
a much easier time feeling connected to Canada- those Chinese born in
Canada had a cultural gap
Most immigrants now come from non-European countries which has
made integration more difficult, especially for visible minorities who
may face racial discrimination
Muslims must deal with the fallout from 9/11
Concentration of immigrants in big cities has advantages and
disadvantages:
(+) Newcomers have more cultural anchors to support them, such as
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