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GGR252H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Pink-Collar Worker, Nuclear Family, Voronoi Diagram

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Stephen Swales
Study Guide

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- retailers (independence vs. retail chains)
o retail chains: there is a sense of ownership (the idea of a business-
most business in the hands of retail chains)
o vast majority of independence is traditional family stores (most stores
are independent)
- retail concentration
Retail supply
1. the major actors:
a. independents private
b. retail chains/franchises private
c. shopping center developers private
d. banks/insurance companies (sources of finance) private
e. government agencies (have a say in what an how we consumer things,
government policies) public
f. planners public
think of the idea of stakeholders
queen street is independent but trying to get on the bandwagon and create a
trend (close relationships)
Retail concentration (market analysis)
- market focused
- a few cities command most market and sales
o relatively small number of places command most of the business
o ie. Vancouver has a physical barrier of distance and mountains
- a few cities have most retail chain H.Q.s (headquarters)
o the decision making center (i.e. Montreal and shipping over water)
- a few locations in the cities command most sales
o distribution of shopping malls (found in middle and high income areas
rather than low)
- there are many retailers but relatively few of them command most sales
- most retailers are independents but most sales are in retail chains
- retail chains are numerous but a relatively small number of large chains
command most sales (i.e. walmart)
o mostly in the hands of few very large retail chains
o Walmart what explains its success/concentration? ** exam
What is the difference from independents? most likely to
have to change ownership or run out of business

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an interdependent Vs. Independent Approach
1. General advantage of scale economies
a. Most activities are cheaper at larger scale cost per unit/outlet is low
b. More specifically below
2. Avoid restrictions of single/few markets
a. Countries, regions, cities, trade areas
b. Making decisions not just on what sites to select for business, but also
what countries would increase business (big retail operators)
c. This is possible as they are spread out (retail chain needs depression
of tragedy to reduce its business
3. Aspects of overhead can be shared
a. i.e. administration, accountancy, locational analysis, training,
4. Leverage and purchasing power is high
a. Negotiate with suppliers and producers
b. shelf space, own brands (walmart tracks its suppliers)
c. can go directly to producers rather than just the suppliers (retail
chain operations)
5. Experience: success and failure
a. This allows companies to know what works through examinations
and retail chains will be able to analyze and predict what will work
rather than independent stores only having to test and hope for the
b. Test lines in sub-set of stores (test in average towns in southern
Ontario i.e. London, Peterborough, Kingston, etc.)
c. Testing = idea whether an idea should be introduced or not
6. Maximum advertising/marketing exposure
a. High profile
b. Different media
c. Generative
d. Universal
e. Application
i. Billboards
ii. Designing a cultural symbol (i.e. coca cola)
iii. Independent business self advertises (placing ads on poles,
1. Retail chains have large advertising and mega profit for
7. Wait-out strategy
a. Retail chains will get into the market and promote its coming (future
b. Independent stores has to wait until the market is fully on board with
c. System wide decision making
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