Ch 12.docx

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22 Apr 2012
Ch 12
- Traditionally chain stores have tended to dominate the planned shopping centres while
independent have been restricted to unplanned central city or retail strip locations.
- Important aspect of retail aspect: functional specialization
- Recent retail strips are typically located in the suburbs, geared towards auto-dependent
suburban shopper, with parking a key consideration
- Dominant business elements of centers and specialized areas are interpreted in terms of central
place postulates
- Davies: the retail pattern of the city center can be viewed in broad terms as a nucleation that is
structured in a series of zonal belts of retail activity
- Jones: provided a reworking of the Berry model, dividing the urban retail system into two
structural forms strips and centers, with each differentiated according to its location in either
inner-city or suburban environments
- Jones and Simmons: classify retail types as either unplanned nodes, linear strips or planned
shopping centers by the size of market they serve ranging from metropolitan to neighbourhood
- Retail system is viewed as outcome of spatial strategies of developers, retailers, planners and
Evolution of Canadian urban retail system
- Entry and exit rate of retailers into system is highly volatile
- Retail fabric of cities has been created in response to demographics, technological, behavioural
and entrepreneurial change
- When mobility is low, retail activities concentrate, when mobility increases, retail activities
- Consumer preferences defined as lifestyle-related
- On the supply side, investment decisions are based on the entrepreneur’s assessment of the
prospects of market over time
- Transformation of urban retail system were tied to successions in types of urban structure and
transportation: the compact pre=automobile city; dispersed automobile city and emerging
information city
Positioning of specialized retail areas
- Specialized retail clusters within metropolitan areas attract weekend shoppers from all region
- Pattern of specialty retailing can be either dispersed or concentrated. Former includes
merchants who offer highly specialized product and who rely on consumer motivations that best
described as esoteric. These retailers have no need to form specialty clusters since they offer
one-of-a-kind merchandise and their customers will travel long distances to purchase product
- Five distinct types of specialty clusters: specialty product areas, fashion centers, factory outlet,
historic developments ethnic strips. Lifestyle center geared to high income shoppers: new
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- They serve 4 different set of consumer demand: cater individuals who have preference for high
quality good, serve customers who shop for discount merchandise, associated with lifestyle
purchases that can be linked to cultural heritage, satisfy certain shopping needs that are
predicted on the need to collect a particular item
- Neighbourhood specialty strip is typically found in older residential areas that have experienced
gentrification. mix of retail and service that carter to local cosmopolitan and tourist market
- Fashion streets often the most expensive and visible shopping locations within the metropolis
with close links to the high-income sectors and executive employment locations. Attractive to
European chains and in a number of instances these retail environments have been
incorporated into mixed-use projects that integrate officers and entertainment
- Ethnic strips are normally associated with the point of entry of an immigrant group in city to
serve needs of immediate neighbourhood. Carter to members of ethnic group throughout the
metropolitan area. Tourist attraction
- Downtown enjoys unparalled transit accessibility, while being less accommodating to cars than
suburbs where parking is free and plentiful
- Central business district highest order unplanned center and serves the entire metropolitan
- Incorporate a series of diverse retail area, cheap restaurant, high fashion street, traditional
shopping street
Toronto Employment Survey (TES)
- Cover all business as well as other employment locations, such as schools, hospital. Does not
survey people who work at home
- Used for: Monitor employment activity, provide background data for economic studies, aid in
forecasting future urban structure scenarios
- 2 functions: data cover all area in city, only source for tenant information. Data cover all
employment operations in city, not just retail and service establishment. Provide comprehensive
data set to analyse other employment activity
- Collected data on type and location of retail and service establishment, describing and analyzing
changes in retail system
- Provide inventory of all major retail and consumer service activities in Toronto, track changes in
location, size and function of retail and service establishment, identify new areas of
Ch 13
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