GGR254H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Corn Belt, Sun Belt, Rust Belt

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Published on 14 Apr 2014
School
UTSG
Department
Geography
Course
GGR254H1
Professor
GGR254H
Lecture Jan 16/13
America as Empire:
How was a set of relatively isolated spaces transformed into the most powerful nation in the
world?
oArgument= transformation of an ‘isolated land into a minor colonial mercantile society
and then into the world’s most powerful economic, military and political power
oAmerica was not yet a nation, rather a large collection of individual groups of people
Not yet connected, not yet a super power
oIncorporation, 1492-1890
Integration into the world economy
European struggles over world supremacy
This is when the US developed into a nation state and integrated into the world
economy
oDynamic economic base (trade)
This would compete in the 19th cent. With GB, FR, DL, etc.
By linking through trade, US merchants were able to create a strong, large,
dynamic commercial economy
oDynamic economic base (manufacturing)
US creates largest industrial base in the world
oPolitical independence and building of a nation
Through revolution from GB
The creation of a political system, built on property, wealth, socio-economic
class, etc.
Key difference = US is a republic, not ruled by a monarch
Created US a nation on the world stage
oTerritorial expansion of occupied lands
Imperial expansion, to take over vast amount of land
Territory that did not really belong to them
oImmigration as population generator
Until 1800 US population was relatively small, but after it really took off.
oInternationalization (1840)
Political-military-economic globalization
American rise to world dominance begins in the first half of the 19th
cent.
oInternationalization: US Economic Expansionism
Move of firms overseas, rise of MNCs
Move overseas takes many forms
Politically justified
Free trade was major way in which economies should develop
US would bring capitalist civilization to the rest of the world
Capitalism against communism
Growing relationship between the state, business and the military
Government stimulates and supports overseas expansion
Growing intervention in most aspects of everyday life
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oTechnology and competition
Lead has fallen as other non-American nations are in competition against
American corporations.
oInvestment Overseas
Increasing American TNC investment abroad part of long-term strategy for
increasing profits
oRaw material dependence
US resources are becoming depleted and too $$
oImperial overstretch
Drain on financial and diplomatic resources
oThe end of victory culture:
Erosion of confidence in the idea of an inherent American superiority
Question: How was “America” settled and what were the consequences for the native
inhabitants?
oEuropean Expansion
Battle for empire by European powers
Britain victorious
Values on possessions
Industrialization
Military
oThe frontier and expansionism
Exploitation of natural resources
Capital investment increase in # of different sectors
Ideology of stratification
Hierarchical systems established around political, social, and
economic institutions
Property relations
oA specific set of property relations develops around land as a
commodity to be bought and sold
oNative land  settler, government and corporate land
Population growth:
oA rapidly growing and mobile population, spreads across the
opened-up territory
Imperial destiny
o‘American’ (aka European) superiority and their rights to the
land
the result?
oThe created of the territorial expanse of what is now the
continental USA
oTerritory, land and natives
Unequal relationships that leads to the virtual destruction of native societies
Culture and environment
The culture and environment of ‘America at the time of European
contact contained a wide variety of native societies
Territory: R Schien
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3 types of European-native interactions
oExpulsion
oArticulation
oStratification
oTerritory:
Private property and native land relations
Europeans and native Americans had different conceptions of land
Native= communal; European= property
Western Liberal Ideology
Horace Greeley (1811-1872)
oA progressive editor, reformer and politician
o“There is no hope for them. God has given this earth to those
who will subdue and cultivate it, and it is vain to try to
struggle against his righteous decree”
Government-Native Treaties
After 1978 the US government and native groups entered into 100s of
treaties giving free title to the former
Land Cessions
oGiving up the right to land, usually in exchange for
something else
oThe process starts on the eastern seaboard and works its way
west
Other government policies
o1763- royal proclamation
o1830- Indian removal act
o1835- permanent Indian reserve
o1851- Indian appropriations act
oConclusion: The Results:
Land is taken away from the natives
Massive population loss of native Americans
Creation of “American” territory
Formation of continental, capitalist society
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Document Summary

Not yet connected, not yet a super power: incorporation, 1492-1890. This is when the us developed into a nation state and integrated into the world economy: dynamic economic base (trade) By linking through trade, us merchants were able to create a strong, large, dynamic commercial economy: dynamic economic base (manufacturing) Us creates largest industrial base in the world: political independence and building of a nation. The creation of a political system, built on property, wealth, socio-economic class, etc. Key difference = us is a republic, not ruled by a monarch: created us a nation on the world stage, territorial expansion of occupied lands. Imperial expansion, to take over vast amount of land. Territory that did not really belong to them: immigration as population generator. Until 1800 us population was relatively small, but after it really took off: internationalization (1840 (cid:0)) Political-military-economic globalization: american rise to world dominance begins in the first half of the 19th cent, internationalization: us economic expansionism.

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