: researcher starts by coming up with a theory that seeks to explain a phenomenon and then deduces specific hypothesis which are then tested by empirical data. Data isn"t gathered to test a theory but rather to come up with the information needed to construct a theory. : the theory is the outcome of research; researcher. : explain human behaviour** and is value-free; employs a deductive approach where theory is constructed prior to research: uses empiricism: only phenomena confirmed by the senses, uses natural science methods for social research can be considered knowledge. Ontological considerations: objectivism individuals produced through interactions, constructivism. : social phenomena exist beyond the reach of. Quatitative vs. qualitative research: quantitative collecting data. : involves the use of numbers and statistics when: mainly uses a deductive approach and has a view that society is an external objective reality, qualitative.